Lecture 09 - Linguistics - Part 1

Lecture 09 - Linguistics - Part 1 - INTRODUCTION TO...

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INTRODUCTION TO COGNITIVE SCIENCE PSYCH 1102/COGST 1101/LING 1170/ PHIL 1910/CS 1710
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Science                Neuroscience Linguistics What do we know about language?                Psychology Linguistics Philosophy                Mind?
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Outline What is linguistics? What language says about cognition in general Phonology & Phonetics Yes, it’s ok to talk to yourself during linguistics exams Morphology Words, sort of Syntax Ok, I admit it, Chomsky did some cool stuff Semantics & Pragmatics It really has meaning! Knowing a language What does it mean to know this stuff?
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What is linguistics? What language says about cognition in  general
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What is linguistics? Language is often seen as the hallmark of  intelligence (rightly or wrongly) Unique to humans (so far as we know) Early definitions of mental illness SETI Linguistics is the study of language What language is & how it is structured How it is produced & comprehended by humans
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What is linguistics? What do users know when they know a  language? Production of individual sounds Combining sounds into words Combining words into phrases & sentences Using sentences in a real-world context
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Phonology & Phonetics Yes, it’s ok to talk to yourself during  linguistics exams
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Phonology & Phonetics Phonology & Phonetics The study of the collection of sounds in a  language and the properties of each sound
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Phonology & Phonetics Phoneme one of the sounds of a language Alphabet of sounds Described in terms of how they are produced All sounds are produced by pushing air out of the lungs  and through the mouth and nose.  Different sounds constrict the airflow in different ways Two broad classes of sounds in any language Consonants: Produced by constricting airflow Vowels: Very little constriction of airflow
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Phonology & Phonetics Three variables on which to further  classify consonants Manner of articulation The way in which the airflow is constricted Place of articulation Place that the constriction occurs Voicing Whether or not the vocal folds vibrate (voiced)  or not (voiceless)
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Phonology & Phonetics Manner of articulation The way in which the airflow is constricted Stops: airflow is completely blocked /t/ in tick Fricatives: partial blockage /š/ in shake Affricates: mix of stop and fricative /č/ in chew (t moving to š) Nasals: air forced through nose /m/ in my Liquids & glides: very little constriction /l/ in lip
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Phonology & Phonetics Place of articulation Bilabial: lips come together /p/ in pit
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Lecture 09 - Linguistics - Part 1 - INTRODUCTION TO...

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