Final_Study_Guide_Full - 1 1947 Constitution of...

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1. 1947 Constitution of Japan (source: Pacific Century: Our Job in Japan ) (Note: was on last year’s final, so might reappear. Crystal said about 50% of IDs/essays repeated on our midterm this year) Background: right after WWII Committee members were inexperienced, but one even went to libraries for other constitutions as models Constitution was more liberal, focused on women’s rights and human rights Weakened the emperor Article 9: demilitarize forever Reactions by Japanese: the standing govt opposed, but the people liked it Significance: it demilitarized Japan, forcing it to focus on its economy, which is one reason it is so strong today From other study guide American constitution in Japan Written by Americans and made Japan use it Right after WWII Committee members were not experts at writing constitutions (some were doctors, lawyers, etc) The items change social and political systems of Japan a. Article 9: No military b. Women can vote, emperor made a symbol (less power) Japanese did not like it because very American (especially the Japanese conservative party did not like it) wanted to create true democracy on their own, not by us. 2. US-Japan Security Treaty and the fight over its revision (source: Crystal – her description of this ID) Created by US Congress in 1952 at the end of the US occupation of Japan. Allowed the US military to continue to stay in Japan and use important bases for defense of the Far East Allowed the US to intervene in Japanese internal disturbances US made Japan a battlefield for a potential nuclear war with the Soviet Union Japanese people didn’t like it, mainly because they didn’t want to be involved in another war since their country was already devastated in WWII In 1957, Prime Minister Kishi started revising the treaty o Made a lot of changes (ie: Japan wouldn’t share cost of US military stationed at its bases) o 1960 – attempted to pass at midnight w/o the opposition’s knowledge o Led to widespread protest Kishi resigns Japanese people still not satisfied with the new version because it failed to change fundamental things and seemed to go against Japan’s desire to be a nation of peace Treaty still in effect today 3. General Douglas MacArthur (Note: Crystal doubts that this ID will be on the final because he’s not Asian)
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Served and commanded in WWI, WWII, and Korean War Was very controversial person – great military leader, but egotistical WWII: supreme commander of Southwest Pacific, credited w/ defeating Japanese Post-war Supreme Commander of Allied Powers (SCAP), known by Japanese as “Gaijin Shogun” = foreign military ruler Responsibility was to oversee reconstruction of Japan, which included demilitarizing it, and reforming the country in all social, political, and economic arenas, essentially making it more liberal (oversaw creation of 1947 constitution) Commander of UN forces during Korean War – wanted to use nuclear weapons
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Final_Study_Guide_Full - 1 1947 Constitution of...

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