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Unformatted text preview: VDAC is less than Vin, leave the bit on. 3. Repeat step 2 for the next MSB, until all n bits of the SAR have been set and tested. 4. After n cycles, the digital output of the SAR will contain the digitized value of the input signal. This algorithm can best be seen with the aid of a graph of the input signal level and the DAC waveform produced by the SAR. Suppose a value of 153 is input into the ADC circuit. The number 153 is 128 + 16 + 8 + 1. In binary, reading right to left, the number is 15310 = (10011001)2 The SAR algorithm states that the MSB, having the value of 128, is to be tested first. Because 128 is less than 153, the MSB is to be kept. The best estimate after the first cycle is (1000 0000). On the next cycle, the next MSB, having value 64, is added to the best estimate (that is, 128 + 64 = 192). Because 192 is greater than 153, this bit is not kept, and the best estimate remains (1000 0000). In the following cycle, the next bit value of 32 yields a test value of 128 + 32 = 160. Again, the test value is greater than the input National Instruments Corporation 9-1 Fundamentals of Digital Electronics Lab 9 Analog-to-Digital Converters, Part II level, so this bit is not kept, and the best estimate remains at (1000 0000). In the following cycle, the next test value of 16 yields 128 + 16 = 144. This value is less than 153, so this bit is kept. After 4 cycles, the best estimate is (1001 0000). The remaining cycles can be seen on the LabVIEW simulation for a successive approximation analog-to-digital converter. In the panel below, the timing diagram shows precisely this process. The solid line is the test value for each cycle, and the dashed line is the input level of 153. Continuing for the next four cycles yields the final binary value displayed on eight LED indicators. Figure 9-1. Successive Approximation Waveform Used to Digitize Input Voltage Load the VI named SAR.vi and run the VI in the continuous mode. You can use the Operating tool to change the input level, and the SAR test waveform will dutifully follow, digitizing the input level in all cases in the same 8 cycles. The DAC output MSB settling time sets the fundamental speed limitation. Most ADCs based on SARs have conversion times of less than 100 ms. Figure 9-2. Digitized Value of an SAR ADC Displayed as a Boolean Array Fundamentals of Digital Electronics 9-2 National Instruments Corporation Lab 9 Analog-to-Digital Converters, Part II A second VI, SAR0.vi, slows the action so you can watch each cycle. The input level is set to 153. The test level is the DAC output, with each bit value added to the previous best estimate as discussed above. The digitized value is the best estimate of the input level after 8 cycles. The Boolean array of indicators shows the binary value of the best estimate as it is developed, and after the 8 cycles, the array contains the digitized value. SAR Simulation
The LabVIEW simulation is somewhat complex, as is a real SAR chip. As a result, the SAR0.vi block diagram will be discussed in two parts--first, the SAR algorithm, and then the binary representation using a Boolean array. The test bit is formed by taking the number 256 and successively dividing it by two in a shift register eight times. The sequence at the Bit Value will read (128, 64, 32,16, 8, 4, 2, and 1) as the loop counter cycles from 0 to 7. The ninth loop is needed to load the initial values into the shift registers. The test value is formed by adding the new bit value to the previous best estimate. The compare function decides whether the current bit should be included in the new best value. After the 8 cycles of the SAR, the best value is the digitized level. Figure 9-3. LabVIEW Simulation of the SAR Algorithm Using Shift Registers To generate a binary representation of the best estimate, a Boolean accumulator in the form of a Boolean shift register is used. The Test Bit, either a high or low, is passed in the array after each cycle using the LabVIEW Replace Array Element function. The Boolean True or False is loaded into the Boolean array at the index specified by the loop counter. Initially, the eight-element array is set to Boolean False states to ensure that all LED indicators in the Boolean array are off. National Instruments Corporation 9-3 Fundamentals of Digital Electronics Lab 9 Analog-to-Digital Converters, Part II Figure 9-4. LabVIEW Simulation of SAR Using Arrays As the best estimate is built, the digitized binary value shows up on the front panel. After the 8 cycles, the binary value is complete, and its decimal equivalent is identical to the digitized value shown in the numeric display. The LabVIEW string function Format and Strip formats any string input into a number according to the selected conversion code. In SAR_Hex.vi, a two-character string representing a hexadecimal number from $00 to $FF is converted into a numeric from 0 to 255 and digitized using the SAR algorithm with arrays. Try running this VI. Summary
In the last two labs, three types of analog-to-digital converters were introduced and demonstrated. The ramp ADC is conceptually the...
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This note was uploaded on 12/01/2009 for the course S ss taught by Professor S during the Spring '09 term at Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon - School of Business.
- Spring '09