PsychopharmLecture2_IntrotoLecture 3_Ch1_2

PsychopharmLecture2_IntrotoLecture 3_Ch1_2 - Introduction...

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Unformatted text preview: Introduction to Pharmacology Introduction to Pharmacology Drug Administration / Absorption Drug Metabolism and Excretion Dose Response Curves Drug Interactions Drug Tolerance First, a few definitions First, a few definitions Drug action Mechanism of Action: cascade of molecular and cellular changes induced by a drug binding to a receptor. Drug effects: physiological and/or psychological changes induced by the drug action. Therapeutic effect: Desired physiological or psychological change induced by the drug effect. Side-effects: Undesirable effects of drug effect. Note: Therapeutic effects and side-effects of a drug depend on context. Amphetamine may have the TE of preventing narcolepsy but cause a loss of appetite (SE). Amphetamines may also be used to control appetite (TE), but have the SE of causing sleeplessness. Step 1: Get it in the blood Step 1: Get it in the blood Start Here! Get It In Get It In Method of Method of Administration Administration Speed of Drug Action Speed of Drug Action Benefit/Drawback Benefit/Drawback Tradeoff Tradeoff Intravenous (IV) Rapid, virtually instantaneous (2 min to be carried through the body) Cant take it back Accurate dose Inhalation Rapid a few minutes Fast entry to blood stream/Lung damage Intramuscular (IM) Fast 10 to 30 minutes (can be slower). Accurate dose/ but a painful shot Intraperitoneal (IP) Fast 10 to 30 minutes Usually only used with animals Subcutaneous (SC) Slow 30 minutes to hours less painful than IM, but slower response Oral (PO) Slow 30 minutes to hours Variable dose (can depend on recent food eaten) Topical Rapid Usually only effective in a limited area Transdermal Slow Provide low, but continuous dose of drug Role of lipid solubility, acidity and Role of lipid solubility, acidity and ionization in drug metabolism ionization in drug metabolism 3 Factors influence absorption Lipid Solubility, Ionization and pK pK = pH of a solution where 50% of the molecule is ionized H + H + H + H + Ionized = carries electrical charge What you need to know Acidic environment has a lot of H + floating around Aspirin -- Absorption Aspirin The Blood Brain Barrier (BBB) The Blood Brain Barrier (BBB) Selectively permeable Selectively permeable Lipid soluble molecules still pass through the BBB Transporters move chemicals from blood to brain Depot Binding Depot Binding While Drug X is flowing through the blood, it can then bind to target receptors or bind to: Fat Albumin (blood protein) Muscle tissue When bound to the latter, it is inactive. When blood levels fall, the drug is released (moves down the concentration gradient), circulates in the blood and can effect the target receptors. Drug Elimination (Biotransformation) Drug Elimination (Biotransformation) Rate of drug clearance (exponential fx) = First Order Kinetics Half-Life = time for 50% of the drug to be eliminated from the system....
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PsychopharmLecture2_IntrotoLecture 3_Ch1_2 - Introduction...

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