Ch_2_Notes - Chapter 2 Matter  Anything...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 2 Matter  Anything that takes up space and has mass h Made up of elements Element  Cannot be broken down to other substances by chemical rxns h Compound- substance consisting of 2 or more different elements combined in a fixed ratio h Compound has different properties than individual elements Na Cl Cl Mg Mg Essential Elements  92 elements- 25 you cant live without h Carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen Make up 96% of all living matter Phosphorous, sulfur, calcium, potassium h Trace elements- required in minute quantities Iron, iodine Goiter- iodine deficiency Structure = Function  Elements are made up of atoms h Atom- smallest unit of matter that still retains the properties of an element h Atom comprised of subatomic particles Neutrons- nucleus Protons- nucleus Electrons- orbit nucleus Matter Elements Atoms Neutrons Protons Electrons Sub-atomic Particles Electrons- negative charge Neutrons- neutral, no charge Protons- positive charge ATTRACT Neutrons & protons ~identical mass 1.7 x 10 -24 g 1 dalton or amu Electrons minimal mass- not counted Atomic Number- number of protons Equal to the number of electrons h Mass Number- # neutrons + # protons 2 neutrons + 2 protons = 4 daltons or amus How do you determine the number of neutrons? Isotopes  Same element- different # of neutrons Atomic number stay same Atomic mass will differ h Carbon atomic number 6 Carbon 12- ___ neutrons Carbon 13- ___ neutrons Carbon 14- ___ neutrons h All have 6 protons! # protons does not change! 6 7 8 Radioactive Isotopes  Stable isotopes ( 12 C, 13 C)- do not lose particles h Radioactive isotope- unstable ( 14 C) Nucleus spontaneously decays Gives off particles & energy h Gives off proton- change element Radioactive carbon -> nitrogen Energy  Atom of helium- Rangers Ballpark Nucleus- pencil eraser in the center Electrons- 2 gnats flying around it h Mostly empty space h Atoms collide only electrons interact Energy - capacity to cause...
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This note was uploaded on 12/01/2009 for the course BIOL 1441 taught by Professor Fredrick during the Fall '08 term at UT Arlington.

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Ch_2_Notes - Chapter 2 Matter  Anything...

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