Ch_5_Notes - TheStructureandFunctionof Macromolecules...

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The Structure and Function of  Macromolecules Chapter 5 9/8
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Macromolecules Macromolecules- large molecule composed of thousands of covalently connected atoms Polymers- chain-like molecules Long molecules consisting of identical building blocks linked by covalent bonds Monomer- repeating unit (“building block”)
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4 Main Classes of Molecules Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acids Polymers: Carbohydrates Proteins Nucleic acids 1. How are they built 2. Structure & function
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Each class- different monomers Build polymer- dehydration rxn (condensation rxn) Lose a H 2 O molecule Break down polymer- hydrolysis rxn Add a H 2 O molecule
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Short polymer Unlinked monomer hydration removes water lecule, forms new bond ydration Rxn- synthesis of a polymer Longer polymer Lose a water One monomer provides H+, other the OH- Facilitated by enzymes (proteins speed up chemical rxn in cells)
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Short polymer Unlinked monomer Longer polymer ydrolysis adds water olecule, breaks a bond s- breakdown of a polymer Add water Digestive system- enzymes break down food
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Diversity of Polymers Each cell has thousands of different kinds of macromolecules An immense variety of polymers can be built from a small set of monomers 26 letters in alphabet- thousands of words 20 amino acids- thousands of proteins
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Carbohydrates   (end in –ose) Monomer- monosaccharide, simple sugars Disaccharide- 2 sugars Polysaccharide- many sugars linked Monosaccharide- multiple unit of CH 2 O Glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) most common monosaccharide Monosaccharides classified- Location of carbonyl group ( C O) Number of carbons in carbon skeleton
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Monosaccharides Location of the carbonyl group Aldose- aldehyde sugar Ketose- ketone sugar Structural Isomers Glucose- aldose Fructose- ketose Glucose Fructose
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Number of carbons in skeleton 3-7 carbons long Drawn as linear skeleton, in aqueous solutions they form rings Triose- 3 carbon ring Pentose- 5 carbon ring Hexose- 6 carbon ring Monosaccharides
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Hexose
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Glucose- energy Monosaccharides - major fuel for cells & raw material for building molecules Cellular respiration- extract energy from glucose
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Disaccharides 2 monosaccharides joined by a glycosidic linkage Covalent bond formed by a dehydration rxn Lose a water-> building Maltose – 2 glucose molecules Sucrose- glucose + fructose (table sugar) Lactose- glucose + galactose (milk)
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Glucose Maltose Fructose Sucrose Glucose Glucose Dehydration rxn- Maltose Synthesis on rxn- Sucrose Synthesis 1–4 glycosidic linkage 1–2 glycosidic linkage
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Polysaccharides-  macromolecules Polymers of monosaccharides (monomers) Hundreds - thousands monomers Storage roles Structural roles The structure and function of a polysaccharide are determined by: Sugar monomers Positions of glycosidic linkages
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This note was uploaded on 12/01/2009 for the course BIOL 1441 taught by Professor Fredrick during the Fall '08 term at UT Arlington.

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Ch_5_Notes - TheStructureandFunctionof Macromolecules...

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