IB131L_Lab_Manual_Chapter1

IB131L_Lab_Manual_Chapter1 - Chapter 1 Anatomical Terms,...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 1 Anatomical Terms, Axial Skeleton, Epithelium 1 Chapter 1 Lecture Outline I. Organizational Principles A. Levels of Organization organelles g159 cells & extracellular matrix g159 tissues g159 organs g159 systems g159 organisms B. Cytology structure and function of subcellular organelles: cytosol, cytoskeletal elements, plasma membrane, nucleus, nucleolus, mitochondria, ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, vesicles, lysosomes, peroxisomes C. Four basic tissue types general properties and functions epithelium connective tissue muscle nervous tissue II. Epithelium A. Properties cellular tight cell apposition polarity apical and basal surfaces basement membrane avascular B. Locations lining surfaces, glands C. Functions boundaries, sealing, protection, absorption, excretion, transport, secretion, sensory reception D. Classification cell shape squamous cuboidal columnar transitional arrangement simple stratified pseudostratified surface modifications and accessory cells cilia microvilli stereocilia keratinization goblet cells Chapter 1 Anatomical Terms, Axial Skeleton, Epithelium 2 naming conventions named for apical layer order arrangement, cell shape, modification and accessory cells special types of epithelium endothelium (simple squamous) mesothelium (simple squamous) transitional (stratified transitional) functional considerations how epithelial type matches function why not all combinations are possible III. Anatomical Terms A. Anatomical Position B. Planes of section median, sagittal, midsagittal, parasagittal coronal, frontal horizontal, transverse, cross C. Directions superior, inferior dorsal, ventral anterior, posterior medial, lateral proximal, distal superficial, deep IV. Bones of the axial skeleton Chapter 1 Anatomical Terms, Axial Skeleton, Epithelium 3 Cadaver List Axial Skeleton vertebral column (vertebrae): cervical (7) especially atlas (C1), axis (C2), vertebra prominens (C7) thoracic (12) lumbar (5) sacral (sacrum) (5) coccygeal (coccyx) (3-4) flexures of the vertebral column primary (thoracic & sacral) secondary (cervical & lumbar) intervertebral disks sternum: manubrium body xiphoid process ribs (12): true ribs false ribs floating ribs costal cartilages hyoid Skull cranial bones : major skull features : fetal skull : frontal orbit anterior/frontal fontanelle occipital nares posterior/occipital fontanelle sphenoid foramen magnum anterior lateral/sphenoidal fontanelle ethmoid zygomatic arch posterior lateral/mastoid fontanelle parietals mastoid process sutures, bones & major skull temporals styloid process features of the adult skull occipital condyles mandibular fossa facial bones : hard palate mandible external acoustic (= auditory) meatus vomer maxillae zygomatics nasals lacrimals palatines inferior nasal conchae NOTE : Be able to identify the bones and their major features (features listed in guide to gross anatomy). Chapter 1 Anatomical Terms, Axial Skeleton, Epithelium 4 Guide to Gross Anatomy...
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IB131L_Lab_Manual_Chapter1 - Chapter 1 Anatomical Terms,...

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