Lab+6+Heart + and+Blood+Histo

Lab+6+Heart + and+Blood+Histo - Lab 6: The Heart and Blood...

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Lab 6: The Heart and Blood Histology Outline: • Heart • Gross anatomy Vessels, blood flow • Cardiac cycle • Conduction system Blood • Plasma • Blood types • Bone marrow
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mediastinum
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The heart has: A base An apex 3 surfaces : anterior (= sternocostal) inferior (= diaphragmatic) posterior (= base) External Features of the Heart
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External Features of the Heart anterior posterior Sulci (= grooves) 1 atrioventricular (= coronary sulcus) 2 interventricular (posterior and anterior interventricular sulci) L&R auricles (= “flaps”) Coronary arteries & cardiac veins R coronary artery L coronary artery Coronary sinus (venous)
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The Human Heart has 4 Chambers L&R atria Receiving chambers L&R ventricles Pumping chambers The atria are separated by an interatrial septum The ventricles are separated by an interventricular septum
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The Human Heart has 4 Valves 2 atrioventricular valves : R atrioventricular (= tricuspid ) valve (3 cusps) L atrioventricular (= mitral or bicuspid ) valve (2 cusps) 2 semilunar valves (each with 3 cusps): Pulmonary semilunar valve (between R ventricle and pulmonary trunk) Aortic semilunar valve (between L ventricle and aorta) aortic sinuses (= sinuses of Valsalva ) Cusps are flaps made of endocardium and reinforced by cores of dense CT
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Superior View of Heart Valves
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The Fibrous “Skeleton” of the Heart Lies within atrioventricular septum Surrounds all 4 valves Made of dense CT Functions: Anchors valve cusps Prevents overdilation of valve openings Serves as an insertion for bundles of cardiac muscle Blocks direct spread of electrical impulses from atria to ventricles
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Special Features of the Heart Wall Pectinate muscles : muscular atrium wall Papillary muscles : Cone-shaped, attached to the chordae tendineae Trabeculae carneae : muscular ridges of ventricular walls Crista Terminalis C-shaped ridge of right atrium
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Heart Covering: Pericardium Pericardium (3 layers) fibrous pericardium (outer layer) made of dense CT, holds heart in place, prevents overfilling serous pericardium (2 layers) parietal layer sticks to fibrous pericardium visceral layer (= epicardium ) is the outermost layer of the heart wall Between parietal and visceral layers is the pericardial cavity , which contains serous fluid (which reduces friction)
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Layers of the Heart Wall Epicardium : visceral layer of serous pericardium Myocardium : consists mainly of cardiac muscle Endocardium: sheet of endothelium resting on a thin layer of CT; lines heart chambers and makes up heart valves epicardium myocardium endocardium Heart wall
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Great Vessels of the Heart Inferior vena cava Superior vena cava Pulmonary trunk L pulmonary A R pulmonary A Aorta [A] - ascending - aortic arch - descending - thoracic - abdominal Entering L atrium posteriorly: 2 L and 2 R pulmonary VV
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Blood is pumped through 2 circuits Pulmonary Circuit : Blood vessels that carry blood to and from the lungs Systemic Circuit : Blood vessels that carry blood to and from the rest of the body
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Blood Flow Through the Heart *Which valves are passed at which points?
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This note was uploaded on 12/02/2009 for the course IB 131L taught by Professor Lewis during the Spring '09 term at University of California, Berkeley.

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Lab+6+Heart + and+Blood+Histo - Lab 6: The Heart and Blood...

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