2008_06_06_15_43_55

2008_06_06_15_43_55 - ‘— F . i7 010/” k . ....

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Unformatted text preview: ‘— F . i7 010/” k . . éfi—g‘} Name _ J/ Section 5”:qu Exam: version 1 (day & time) . PART 1 {—D 3 HOELSE— i Ye \v Questions 1-25 are 'l‘ruchaise or multiple choice. Clearly WRITE your answer in the blanks provided. Each question is worth 1 point (25 points total). 19‘ l. The Miller-Urey experiment demonstrated that: a) organic compounds (like amino acids) can be carried on meteors. b) the organic building blocks of life could arise in a reducing environment. c) life is not continually arising from existing life. d) amino acid polymers can form spontaneously. e) ribozyrnes had some catalytic activity. .. k2 ‘2. Protobiont populations could begin to undergo evolutionary change by natural selection only when: a) they were first able to catalyZe reactions. b) a heredity mechanism arose. c) they were able to grow. d) photosynthesis evolved. e) DNA first appeared. e ' 3. The most likely candidate molecule for the earliest the catalyst (building block) of life is: a) cyanobacteria b) protobionts c) liposomes d) DNA e) RNA L3 14./Which statement is feast correct about the “Cambrian Explosion": a) It marked the end of the PreCambrian era. b) Almost all animal lineages that exist today were found as fossils during this time. There was a rapid increase in Species numbers over a few thousand years. \' d) Becausc the fOSsil record is incomplete, diversification may have begun earlier. c) It may have been caused by rapid coevolution between predators and prey. ‘ 5. The "Age of Dinosaurs" is considered: a) Cenozoic b) Mesozoic c) Paleozoic d) Precambrian c) Holocene 0L Wat period and epoch do we live in today? a) Cenozoic, Holocene b) Cenozoic, Pleistocene c) Cenozoic, Quaternary d) Holocene, Pleistocene l-loloccne, Quaternary dinosaurs went extinct apfroxil llcly 65 million years ago likely due to a meteor that struck in the Yucatan peninsula. m e ' 8. What percent of radon (a radioactive isotope) has decayed after 3 half lives? .a) 12.5% b) 25% c) 50% d) 75% e) 87.5% ._._ min Which ofthe following is not integral to natural selection? a) More offspring are produced than can survive. b) Variations can be passed from one generation to the next. c) Some individuals survive longer than others. @ Phenotypic variation exists in the population, but not necessarily fitness differences. 5..., e) Variation exists in relative fitness between individuals. Ltd/i 6’ 10. lfa pepnlation is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, the population is evolving. True 1 +7 Cid 1. Natural selection that acts against extreme phenotypes and favors intermediate variants is called: a) directional selection b) heterozygote advantage c) disruptive selection d) stabilizing selection , e) balanced polymorphism b‘ 12. A random change in allele frequency in a small, isolated population, is called: a) gene pool b) genetic drift c) founder effect d) gene frequency gene flow a 3’ I ' 13. Genetic drift that results from a small number of individuals colonizing a new area is called: a) heterozygote advantage b) gene pool c) gene flow d) founder effect e) population bottleneck 6' 14. Brown eye color is caused by a dominant allele (B) in the human population. The frequency of the B allele is 0.3. Assuming I-I—W equilibrium, how many people in a population of 1000 individUals would be brown eyed? a) 90 100:: .37 p“;,9f b) 300 g, c) 420 c[ -' {L/JiLYL a) 490 A?) 510 ._, a 15. In a population of mice, you find that 48% of them have a tail length indicating they are heterozygous (An). What is the frequency ofthe dominant allele (A) in this population? a) 0.24 b) 0.48 c) 0.52 r ‘1’ «f d) 0.60 fe3) not enough information E r 16. Female Heliconqu butterflies prefer rare males with the color pattern most different from the other males. This is an example of selection. a) positive frequency dependent b) negative frequency dependent c) directional d) stabilizing A e) disruptive ’ 17. Which fitness array represents heterozygote advantage for AA, Aa, aa genotypes, respectively? a) 1,1, l-s b) 1, 1-3, 1-25 c) l, 1-5.1 @ [-5, 1, 1-5 e) 1,1,1 a 18. A grouping that includes gran ancestral species and some, but not all, of the descendants is a: a) monopliyletic group b) paraphyletic group c) polyphyletic group d) convergent group e) outgroup (E 19. Two species of plants do not hybridize in nature but can be readily crOSsed in the laboratory to produce fertile offspring. Which of the following is least likely to keep the gene pools Separate in nature? gametic isolation \r b) different attractiveness to pollinators c) different geographic ranges d) seasonal differences in flowering e) different ecological niches b iQQ/(Dne species ofhununingbird lives on the upper slopes of the Andes Mountains and its sister species lives on the lower slopes. These species are likely the result of: a) sympatric speciation. - allopatric speciation. @ parapatric speciation. a vicariant event. e) a dispersal event. id . 2]. A synonymous mutation: a) changes the amino acid and is often beneficial. b) changes the amino acid and is often (slightly) deleterious. c) changes the amino acid and is often neutral. @ does not change the amino acid and is often neutral. e) does n01 change the amino acid and is often deleterious. C t 22. Memes are useful for addressing the evolutionary relationships of very ‘5':- divergent species because they: a) evolve at a rapid rate. 13) have undergone convergent evolution in many lineages. s... @j) are molecules that all organisms have. d) has a high rate of substitution. e) are difficult to align. 6 ’ 23. Which ofthe following statements best“ describes genome organization: a) Complex organisms have more DNA than simple organisms. b) TA Ed Chuong has more DNA than an onion. c) Moat DNA of complex organisms is non—functional or “junk.” d) Genome size correlates with organismal complexity. e) Simple organisms have more genes than complex organisms. 4-we- 6'3 24. Paralogues are: :1) genes related by common ancestry followed by speciation. b) genes related by common ancestry followed by duplication. c) exemplified by Hox genes. d) appropriate for use in phylogenetic analyses of species relationships. e) B 8; C 8 ‘25. Two nucleotide sequences found in two different species are almost exactly the same. This suggests that these species: a) are evolving into the same species. b) contain identical DNA. c) are the result of hybridization. d) have the same mutation rate. ._. e) recently shared a common ancestor. PART 2: Matching and till-in the blank (worth 33 points total) 26. Match the individual with their major contribution to evolutionary biology (6 points): J i Hutton A) traits are inherited by paired particles that randomly separate during gamete formation _D_- Buffon B) the earth is ancient and changes gradually _E_r_ Steno C) dominant traits don‘t always fix in a populatiori i chner D) using comparative morphology, suggested that organisms share a common ancestor i Mendel E) earth’s lower strata are older relative to higher strata, which are younger ' Hardy F) South America and Africa were once connected +0 27. Match TWO answers below to each of the evolutionary agents listed below. Note: letters may be used only once. {10 points) r Héenetic Drift i A Mutation g D t/l7 ' Non-Randorn Mating 6 J Natural Selection J .l \ J F ’ Migration A) Has no effect on allele frequency B) New alleles only originate by this agent C) Increases genetic variation D) Shuffles alleles among genotypes E) Eventually leads to the fixation or loss of every allele F) Reduces genetic variation maintained in sub-populations G) Differential survival and reproductive success of individuals H) Can cause the fixation of deleterious alleles and loss of beneficial alleles I) Can cause the loss of deleterious alleles and fixation of beneficial alleles J) Introduction of new alleles via gene flow 28. Which events will most likely change genetic diversity of the population overtime? Write “Increase”, “Decrease” or “No Change” in the blank spaces provided. (10 points) t - - «C 4’ "K a. Self-fertilization in plants. E to g‘lw‘lg A somatic mutation in an adult Pigment Call‘ .13 Dore “f c. A gametic mutation in a developing oocyte. «dad/gaff: d. A tornado dramatically reduces the number of humblebees in Kansas. VH2" e. Strong selection favors shorter tails in high elevation populations of mice. g. (Mei/Q f. A recessive disease that is fatal to infants. M g 2% 1 g. A recessive disease that is fatal to females when they turn 80. M 0 [Ad “13 h. A stray lion migrates into a neighboring population but cannot successfully find a mate. —a--""' WEN/'6 i. A group of black bears walk across a frozen river and start a new population. d It”. 6 _ I I . ‘ I . I 41"” I 0 "’ J. Mlgraung butterflies enter a pepulatlon and preferentially breed With the resulents. 29. Fill in the blanks, example given (7 points) \- Pre or postzygotic Type of isolation isolation behaviQLaLisolation Two similar species of lizards have different mating rituals Pre . m ' PO t j [WVJ Gigi/Two hermit crab species mate. Their hybrid offspring mate, but can’t seem to produce their own offspring. . x. ‘ )f ‘7r\ FL 1 ‘- IrTwo species of orchid have different length nectar tubes and are ' pollinated by different species of moths /—,‘a/l I]! pi’e on," / I (will, Two species of fish spawn during different months _ _./" s ‘ ' at“ . . . { I f 7f 4 t i hit V” {pm Two similar species of Chickadee have different mating dance f [WI 7L [at 2 L7!” L4 AL” i Two siJ/ecies of Drosopht'l'a breed in the lab but the embryos fail to develop r ‘ +37 rx Pip/e f flair} 4“ i ’i h {at One species of maggot fly breeds on hawthorn fruit, whereas another species of fly breeds apples ‘ “ ‘F m I K" A’M {7 6 “(Tingle captivity geese and swans will mate, but the sperm from each Species is unable to penetrate the egg coat of the other species PART 3: Read each question carefully. Show your work for partial credit. Explain your answers and include key terms for full credit. (42 points total) 30. Monkeyflowers of the genus Mfmulus are found across North America. Members ofthis plant genus J have showy flOWers to attract pollinators: some are red and some are yellow. Flower color is controlled by a single gene and the red allele (R) is dominant. (a) In a population of 1000 plants. only 90 plants have yellow flowers. What proportion of all red flowering plants is heterozygous at the flower color locus? Assume HW equilibrium. Show your work. (41m) 1., -. 0 1 : .01 ,W/t’lws L“ (/0 i in??? “:04 _ Hr” v2.4» (f reg/["09 Kr. {bf I Wig/hotfl’r A: 2M - AW {03: "'1.qu .va/mi-W of flar’v’W/‘A'W/L)’ (lid? Kr- : 0%. {bdrm/lo/Mfi strep—Q4 {giver feé/L'J/ I‘Bkr‘ofiffifl—f -6/ ¥Lw8r 6J4?" (b) You notice that red HOWers are visited by pollinators twice as often (and therefore are twice as fit) as yellow flowers. Calculate the genotype frequencies in the next generation using the fiequencies from above. Be sure to write out the fitness array. (41115) gmn Mn; 92.5 {LA/0f] kid/m) : _LM : $146—$523 {4AM fluid!) z ,w a??? '— {T‘j—x .‘MO WeMmMCPrJ : ,oqfx-%§%7;§7z,og=ro J Alix??? T I (c) What kind of selection is acting on flower color? (lpt) DJ.VeC'i'r“"0f\-¢JLL BECECme (d) Is the mutation responsrb r the color variation synonymous or non-synonymous? (lpt) Mme-fyl’tonémo'm)’ .4— (e) Is this mutation considered a poly orphism or substitution? (lpt) V, b0 l fm 000 14 91m 31. After you finish the BILD3 midterm, you decide to go for a hike to Lake Powell. On your hike you notice a large number of monkeyflowers that are continuously distributed from the dense wet forest and to the open dry edge ofthe lake. The forest plants are much tallergncl’ the lake plants. A (a) You suspect they may be different species. Explain to your hiking buddy the three species concepts: Opt/s) I. rm Myfliwerw {Fewer wwa 94W 2%!” '5’” it‘d-rem / wearer we Age-NJ a; xiii/4"“t Mamba/v l M éev‘mn mu 7L Offdr'lrgm(/{Mfig‘ A/ @215.” fi'mfivf/ MO (mi); fh,/g// filL 7n (7% fists/.‘a/WU‘C/ dyadicz {47/ 744,”! j/(fletrfié’f ‘éF-‘fl CA.“ {Ale/Loaf; yer/L. {MA 9’04,” “ml: fl’r‘wd H’p,~‘¢%’f§ré-&' U’fi fat/l fteétfce, 1/0”!" flay-“t flirted?“ 356* 17 H/Gd¢6/Iw( J 17°de 21492“ 0m/ Wfllaafi‘dr 01‘ $.'i‘)5€r-.€I'~7L 046' I,“P/: y 3- We Mylo/3V r cr‘e/ cart/{47‘ r-L/r flu?" rfiwr/ m M amt “[po 6-47 w-fM/Mcry' :‘f-fi/f {/4 715.1111 Mmérar’f ref fie {$.49 fmwe'f gtrfi ~€£r Vow/x mfg/f $1d44/~1§’T .m eat~fnauf Kt,y',{,,.f: (b) After closer examination, you really think that these plants may be different species. You take the pollen from the forest form and pollinate the lake form. Hybrid offspring result, but they don't produce any pollen! Would you considen'these‘to\be good biological species? Why or why not? (2pts) L -‘- iotqff fir-{j ‘0 J, ware-[A MILJ’ 6 LL ofi/ {3h 74 Q: 0L érpcop‘c-L/Jfiecy‘é A team/+2 new Marika; May/lg; mace/m r w x4440,“ neat» WM may he mm we 374 We 74.7% made; "2’ mama“ a! {sale mi 4e»; (m )6 r—é’flfvime. ,4/9 1% ,L J r r 4 l? I)? a /7L.~3 71," 43 Mr— 074 red“, ffiifféf [$53 fret/{A19 $51)“ 4 we” “Aflfdlyif‘: 3/0 avg-ray (c) Given your observations about the distribution of the s ecies, what force promotes the genetic divergence betvveen these species? (lpt) M-_1Z“,q_ / 74/3“ at "'—" (d) If you determine that you have two good species/“what isthe most likely mode of speciation? (lpt) 4W flL/Afl/crfiq; fpcmfn ft ,‘o'p/Vz‘d—Brzkt; 24/ 5%, mm! . (e) What conditions are necessary for this particular speciation rnodetto occur? (lpt) ,«L (ac ' , The natural f—(DQéf,-—m my 4,5" flM/e’ flu" #42, - /’ 624/ 4"]? mt, Jenn kg ‘8 74% flea/diva! Nag (“4 , \ {eighty 1W? flpffifl xii/4 m Mon-{74 Quite “co—4 & #4»; fixzjlgfiflg’lf’fl 4.1/ng / “ ° h M ‘w‘ ta :n “W “(a H We we} , M _. 454w- 32. $1;er studfii’tgfl the oweers. youosbon become fascinated With the hummigtgbird pollinators. Ther‘gfgg-t A Mr 2L0 f1 males have very brightly-colored chests. whereas females are very drab colored. Male hummingbirds will ‘74“; 6:“- also fly at other males to try to exclude them from their territory. {’1 ,/(£ k (a) Name and describe the two components of ritual selection taking place. (2pts) . nfl’nffi'knal V’ ' ’52” A 9/ 4414/ t 4!. wr‘ffi ‘14 gift/‘7 {vi *0er flak/7&3? 'e’tdw fl’m Mari/:5 fix/i Ilfl'iifirfl “ti MIL A If ‘fl/vefl"nj M4“ JAE may guy!“ 1”"! 5” 4/! 0"t‘9/I‘J‘I Ari/Jay“ 79%] ’4‘“; zeta. 55/ m ‘ ’Le “7744 . ' {I ’— 03) Why are female birds more “choosy” than males? (2pts) Explain. WA: é/‘A/ (Jr-f? Man—e 04/99/2/ Leeann/e, flow-Q. ,é‘maé. 444/ m/ 4 Moe/7’ r. firm/«c Mamie! of flex-r 4MB! “74:4- «.4. 4A ‘67} gr FQflw-jacfiwzfld/b-fi “itng Md (6/ éof—C . . (JD/HJ/ #:41wa [At/mAJ/X m L/ # {344/11— M,__€ 1/ a'rtl-_ (“fl flwrfa-fitK (aw-6 75am éke ILL-oCZ/ of w flu] org-(k fa . 33. One species of hummingbirds experience particularly high levels of predation. After careful I? - observati0n, you notice that in this population males are brightly colored when females are present, but in the absence of females they decrease the brightness of their feathers. vf. eta/a/ F,[ a ,4, 2" rt 57 (a) The male hummingbirds's ability to change colors is an example of: flM-\_(lpt) 4&3; \ O (b) Is is color change heritable? Explain. (1 pt) ‘ - -- as a L ,_ M. flew-e flcffikpfl "’1- A fifliflaflqfih k) (c) Using terms you learned in class, explain why males dOn‘t always have brightly colored chests? (lpt) H My“ my! é—vnt% Azwdjf kbufl Gin/44%} gee-1.1.9., ' I?/ t» ' mm peflda-fix/ ((4 ,7”?— xuég (mg; “'4‘ \ ééYJ/‘f/ "gkr’flr/ “("55 M‘ée’f #flafi M¢1L”'t//£G£o 1-,»— en er cutter C’s/tr re fem/Medan aw 5/ éh‘étfd/ 6" f 7L34L7Z7blaé’f WA “14%;” [A b /" *f'W/rt/Jl/ 'sz “ff/m4? M4 ka444/ figs/27a Let/(64%, 9“) Insect—eating species #2 nectar-feeding Species #13 nectar-feeding species #4 Insect-eating species #1 _ 34. The phylogeny above represents the relationships between four hummingbird species and a finch. Some species feed on insects and others feed on the nectar of flowers. (2pts each) / Circle and label (A) the most recent common ancestor of the hummingbirds. / '/‘€/'c iii. CH? C 2% What type of clade do insect-eating hummingbirds represent? 4 . e. The finch is included in the phylogeny as it serves as an: 0 Mi fl 5”” “(V5 . f. Based on the topology, finches likely eat: iii, ‘80ij b. Identify and label (B) on the phylogeny where a nectar diet evolved. /{ What type of clade do nectar-feeding hummingbirds represent? +6» 35. Paleontologists found fossil hummingbird bones and extracted DNA from these bones. Molecular biologists were able to sequence DNA from the nectar and insect feeding species and found 20 substitutions had accumulated in the C011 gene. Based on fossil evidence, paleontologists know that these two species separated about 10 million years ago. The paleontologists, h0wever, were very interested to know when the two nectar feeding species diverged. So, they asked molecular biologists to Sequence the C011 gene in these two species. They reported that 10 substitutions had accumulated in this gene. ar clockihow long ago did the nectar feeding species diverge? Show your ork. (2pts) (3) Assumingamgglfl (LO Pa ' #6 raw flied. Rea-JV" ’0 WM" 2M4}: A)“ (b) To do this calculation (using a molecular clock), what did you have to assume about the rate of evolution ofthe COII gene? (lpt) 7L f» 7K efllcfi/ [1 71 A Q ,1 {fficn dd (0) To do this calculation «l fwd?- - i. assume that the C11 cues in these different species are: (1 pt) . . . Paralogues (Circle one) EXTRA CREDIT ( I pt) What do you think is the most convincing evidence for "evolution by natural seiectian ” and why? TL“:— T’f 41/ 69/14 / 0.w\,§/ - a, ' L!“ I . . f - - 91554 If”. / r/ map—AL 77.4 flag/(21’, m M by 1.49 we ,. ,4)ng (/i ,,8.,/ /A,,. ,4 xi H! J ...
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This note was uploaded on 12/02/2009 for the course BILD BILD 3 taught by Professor Woodruff during the Fall '08 term at UCSD.

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2008_06_06_15_43_55 - ‘— F . i7 010/” k . ....

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