Review Questions for Exam 1
Chapter 22 and 23
: Theory, hypothesis, acquired characters, adaptive radiation,
Galapagos finches, artificial selection, super bugs, convergent vs. divergent
evolution, analogous vs. homologous structures, gene pool, allele, Hardy
Weinberg Law, genetic drift, gene flow, bottleneck, founder’s effect,
polymorphism, clines, geographic variation, heterozygote advantage, neutral
variation, directional, stabilizing or diversifying selection, sexual reproduction,
sexual selection, sexual dimorphism, constraints to evolution, trade off
1. Who were the major scientists that developed the background information
necessary for Darwin to develop his theory, and what did each scientist
Plato and Aristotle, Cuvier, Lamarck, Lyell
2. How did Darwin’s early travels contribute to his ideas?
Biogeographical differences in fauna and adaptive radiations
suggested evolution by natural selection
3. Be able to list the major assumptions (observations) and predictions of
Darwin’s theory of natural selection.
Populations could, but don’t increase because resources are
limiting, so only the most fit offspring survive, causing long-term
increases in frequency of adaptations in populations
4. Discuss how artificial selection, pepper moths, biogeography, homologies,
and the fossil record all provide evidence for natural selection and evolution.
evidence, homologies, biogeography, and
fossil record provide
5. If the frequency of the recessive phenotype is 16 %, what is the frequency of
the recessive allele?
The dominant allele?
What are the other two
What if the recessive phenotypic frequency is 10
= .16, q = 0.4, p = 0.6, p
= 0.36, 2pq = 0.48
6. Give two examples of factors that decrease the numbers of individuals
reproducing in populations, and note how they affect the frequency of rare
alleles, and the amount of genetic variation and heterozygosity