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Ch 42 - Ch 42 Circulation and Respiration Understand...

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Ch. 42 - Circulation and Respiration Understand difference between open and closed circulatory system Know how efficiency of CS has evolved in both inverts and verts Understand what factors determine blood pressure, and capillary transport Understand how respiratory structures have evolved, different types of lungs, and how ventilation rate is controlled Understand how and why oxygen is picked up by blood at the lung and lost at cells Overview of Circulatory System 0. Vessels, valves and pumping heart 1. Transports gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide), nutrients (glucose), wastes (urea), hormones and cells 2. functions in temperature control in homeotherms Types of CS: 3. Open system in arthropods and most mollusks pumps blood through sinuses bathing cells 4. Closed system in annelids and vertebrates 0. Smallest vessels are capillaries with greatest SA where gas exchange occurs 1. Flow and pressure much greater than in open system Anatomy of the Vertebrate Circulatory System 5. Heart arteries (afferent) arterioles capillaries venules veins(efferent) Heart 6. 2 Chambered heart in fish 7. 3 Chambered heart in amphibians and reptiles (mixing of blood in ventricle) 8. 4 chambered heart in birds and mammals (no mixing of arterial and venous blood- more efficient) Figure 42.4 Generalized circulatory schemes of vertebrates The Mammalian Heart 9. Double pump system, with 2 loops (systemic and pulmonary) 10. Oxygen poor venous blood on right side with tricuspid and semilunar valves to prevent backflow
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11.Oxygen rich blood from lung on left side with strong bicuspid valve to prevent backflow Figure 42.5 Figure 42.6 The mammalian heart: a closer look The Mammalian Heart 0. Atria thin walled, ventricles stronger 1. Normal rate 50 - 100 bpm but can increase to 180 2. Systole - ventricular contraction (120 mm Hg arterial pressure) 3. Diastole - ventricular relaxation (80 mm Hg) 4. Cardiac output = 5.25 L/min = stroke volume (70 ml) x heart rate (75 bpm) 5. Cardiac output can increase 5 x with exercise Figure 42.7The cardiac cycle Control of Heart Rate 6.
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