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Unformatted text preview: mRNA of lac genes sense strand TATAAAA ATATTTT YAY RTR GGCCAATCT CCGGTTAGA GGGCGG CCCGCC AGAUUUGCUU... mRNA 5 5 3 GC box CAAT box TATA box +1 sense strand template strand AY 5 mRNA-25-75 UPSTREAM CONTROL ELEMENT CORE ELEMENT-150 -100-50 +1 sense strand template strand rRNA 5 5 3 5 5 Prokaryotic Promoters a. Consensus sequences and positions of promoter elements b. Example: E. coli lac gene promoter region with promoter elements in black on the DNA sense strand Eukaryotic Promoters a. Consensus sequences and positions of promoter elements for protein-encoding genes b. Example: mouse -major globin gene promoter region with promoter elements in black on the DNA sense strand c. Consensus sequences and positions of promoter elements for rRNA genes wn site of intron site of intron AY portion of pre-mRNA not shown eam portion of pre-mRNA not shown transcript rRNAs & tRNAs DNA encoding tRNAs transcript tRNAs transcripts (pre-mRNAs) DNA encoding proteins mRNAs DNA encoding rRNAs transcript rRNAs DNA encoding tRNAs transcripts tRNAs Eukaryotes Genetics Notes [DNA Structure] The substance of heredity Experiment 1: Griffith infects mice with Streptococcus pneumonia- Used two different strains: Rough/Smooth The smooth strain has polysaccharide coating which makes the surface look smooth. This coating protects The rough strain does not contain this coating- Trial one : Smooth strain After injected, the mouse died due to its immune system not being able to fight off the bacteria because of the Isolation: Griffith then took blood from the mouse, spread it on a plate, and smooth colonies grew- Trial two: Rough strain After injected, the mouse fought the infection and The mouses immune system killed the bacteria Isolation: Griffith then took blood from that mouse, spread it on a plate and no rough colonies grew- Trial three: Dead Smooth strains After injected, mouse survived Isolation: Provided nothing. Dead cells do not reproduce and cannot produce colonies on a plate- Trial four: Living Rough strain & Dead Smooth strain After injected, mouse died Isolation: Griffith isolated blood from mouse on a plate, live smooth strain colonies formed The live rough strain cells did not transform into live smooth strain cells Griffiths Explanation: Live Rough strain cells transformed into smooth strain cells in the presence of the dead smooth strain cells. He believed that there was some sort of chemical that influenced this by going into the rough cells and making them smooth. He called this the - Transforming Principle Griffith believed this was the genetic material in two Parent to Progeny: Rough cells transformed into Since the mouse died (transformed) This means the transforming principle is heritable. Parent Progeny Transforming Principle influences traits Due to the smooth appearance and the...
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