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Unformatted text preview: KIN 315 Motor Learning Fall 2009 Name Lab 10 Frequency of Knowledge of Results Introduction Purpose: To investigate how the frequency of receiving knowledge of results (KR) influences learning a motor skill. Debate concerning this issue has developed over the years. One side argues that that giving KR on every trial (i.e., 100% frequency) leads to better learning, and the other side argues that there is an optimal frequency of KR less than 100%. In this lab, you will participate in an experiment in which two different KR frequencies are compared in terms of their influence on learning to toss a beanbag at a target that cannot be seen. Task and Equipment Needed The task involves tossing a beanbag at a target on the floor while blindfolded. The score for each toss is determined by the best scoring target area the beanbag touches when it stops. Equipment: • beanbag • blindfold • tape to make target • chair To make the Target Place eleven strips of tape on the floor, with spaces between strips equal in width to the tape. Then mark the center strip as 0, which designates the goal area for each toss. Mark each strip from this goal area as - 2, -4, -6, etc. for the strips that will be toward the participant (i.e. the strips between 0 and the thrower). Mark +2, +4, +6, etc. for the strips that will be away from the participant. Odd numbers should be assigned to the spaces between the strips. Procedure The lab participants should be organized into two groups. One group receives KR after every trial (the KR1 group). The other receives KR after every fifth trial (the KR5 group). KR is given on Trial 1 for the KR5 group. KR is presented as the number of units long or short of the target area. For example, if the participant's beanbag toss stops on the +5 area of the target, the KR would be, "You were 5 units too far." Or, if the toss ends on the -4 area, the KR would be. "You were 4 units too short." If the beanbag ends touching the 0 area, the KR is, "You were correct." To begin the experiment, the participant should sit on the chair from where he or she will toss the beanbags, which should be randomly placed 6-8 feet from the target (0) strip. He or she should be blindfolded before the chair is placed so as not to be able to see the actual distance between the chair and the target. After being blindfolded the participant must be led to the chair and helped to sit facing the target. Give verbal instructions to the participant indicating that the object of the task is to toss the beanbag so that it ends on the target a specific distance away. The exact distance of that goal will be discovered as he or she practices and receives KR about his or her tosses. Included in these instructions should be a description of what the KR will be and when it will be given. It is important that the participant understands what the KR means. After giving the instructions, begin Trial 1. There will be a total of 30 trials after trial 1, with KR given with the frequency appropriate to each group. Following a rest interval (about 10 minutes), during which the participant should remove the blindfold, get up from the chair and do as he or she wants, there will be 5 retention trials (again blindfolded), with the chair placed in the same location. No KR will be given to either group on the retention trials. Results 1 Your error scores for each trial should be recorded on the Individual Data Sheet. 2 From your Individual Data Sheet, calculate the CE, AE, and VE scores for each block of five trials. (Notice that Trial 1 is not included in these calculations.) Record these scores on the Individual Data Summary Table. Then, record these scores on the Group Data Sheet. From the Group Data Sheet, calculate the mean for AE, CE, and VE for each block of trials for each group. Record these results on the Group Data Summary Tables that follow. Based on the results shown in the Group Data Sheet, draw a line graph for AE, a line graph for CE, and a line graph for VE, showing in each graph the performance of the two groups for the six practice blocks and the one retention block. 3 4 Questions 1 What do the results of this experiment tell you about how the frequency of giving KR influences learning a skill? [Be sure to distinguish between performance and learning effects if these were different for your experiment.] 2 Do your results indicate different results for the different error scores? If yes, describe what these results indicate about the KR frequency effect. 3 Which of the two views of KR frequency, described in the Introduction to this lab, do the results of this lab support? Why do you say that these results support that view? 1 Mean CE Mean AE Mean VE 1 Mean CE Mean AE Mean VE KR1 Group Data Summary Table 2 3 4 5 6 Retention KR5 Group Data Summary Table 2 3 4 5 6 Retention INDIVIDUAL DATA SHEET
Name GROUP (Check one) KR1 Lab Section KR5 Date CHAIR LOCATION TRIAL 1 CE TRIAL 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21
Block CE TRIAL 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 CE RETENTION 1 2 3 4 5 CE Individual Data Summary Table CE AE VE 1 (Trials 2-6) 2 (Trials 7-11) 3 (Trials 12-16) 4 (Trials 17-21) 5 (Trials 22-26) 6 (Trials 27-31) Retention trials KR1 GROUP DATA SHEET PARTICIPANTS 5 6 7 8 1 CE AE VE 2 CE AE VE 3 CE AE VE 4 CE AE VE 5 CE AE VE 6 CE AE VE R CE AE VE 1 2 3 4 9 10 11 12 KR5 GROUP DATA SHEET PARTICIPANTS 5 6 7 8 1 CE AE VE 2 CE AE VE 3 CE AE VE 4 CE AE VE 5 CE AE VE 6 CE AE VE R CE AE VE 1 2 3 4 9 10 11 12 ...
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- Spring '08