2 DNA and Proteins

2 DNA and Proteins - Cells, nuclei and chromosomes...

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Cells, nuclei and chromosomes Prokaryotes: one-cell organisms (bacteria such as E. coli ), 1 chromosome, no nucleus Eukaryotes: >1 cell (fungi, plants, animals] >1 chromosome (drosophila 8, mouse 40, human 46, chicken 78] Defined nucleus of chromatin (35%DNA +
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Chromosome structure Structural genes code for one polypeptide - often known as a phenotype (1 vs mult copies] Regulatory sequences of DNA control transcription of structural genes Restriction endonucleases; methylases Highly (10 6 ] and moderately [10 3 ] repetitive sequences of ~10 bp account for ~25% DNA Introns (nontranslated) and exons
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The four nucleotide bases of DNA
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DNA double helix and base pairing; A/T & G/C ratios=1
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DNA: a four letter alphabet, but only two pairings
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Restriction enzymes cut palindromic sequences of DNA; these ends can be recombined with foreign DNA cut by the same R.E.
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“Reading” the genetic code: Structural genes have both regulatory and coding regions: regulatory regions are essentially a
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2 DNA and Proteins - Cells, nuclei and chromosomes...

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