Exam 3 Review Questions

Exam 3 Review Questions - Sasha Vaziri Neurochemistry...

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Unformatted text preview: Sasha Vaziri Neurochemistry Review Final Exam Chapter 8 How does the conditioning model of addiction (as described by Wikler) explain relapse to drug use in the absence of actual withdrawal symptoms? Physical Dependence Model: o Some drugs of abuse can lead to a physical dependence when taken repeatedly; one model of drug abuse believes that this is key in the establishment and maintenance of drug addiction. o Once an individual has become physically dependent due to repeated drug abuse, attempts at abstinence lead to a highly unpleasant withdrawal symptom (abstinence syndrome). This highly unpleasant experience motivates the user to take the drug again and relapse to alleviate the symptoms. This motivates the user to take the drug again to alleviate the symptoms and promotes drug-taking behavior through a process of negative reinforcement and thus leads to a continuous behavioral loop consisting of repeated abstinence followed by relapse Over time, they are likely to undergo many episodes of withdrawal, and Wikler argued that these withdrawal reactions repeatedly occur in specific environments where the addict hustles for the drug, responses with the addict will become classically conditioned to the stimuli associated with those environments. Consequently, even if an addict has been drug free for some length of time and is therefore no longer experiencing an acute abstinence syndrome, withdrawal symptoms can be triggered by exposure to the conditioned stimuli Drug craving is considered to be one of the symptoms associated with conditioned withdrawal In experiments, cocaine dependent but not control subjects experienced a significant craving for cocaine, and the desire for a cocaine-induced rush, and even a feeling of the high in a video that simulated a person obtaining, preparing, and then smoking crack cocaine. Brain scans measuring regional cerebral blood flow during the video showed that the subjective responses were correlated with increased activation of the amygdala and the anterior cingulated cortex along with decreased activation of the basal ganglia. Thus stimuli associated with the procurement and use of cocaine evoked craving and other drug-related responses as well as specific changes in brain activity. They occurred only in the subjects that had become cocaine-dependant o Critique of this Model: Some major drugs of abuse do not produce a strong physical dependence It accounts for the person after they become dependent but it does not account for the earlier drug use that led to this dependence 1 Does not account for the relapse of addicts as they go through drug detoxification Wikler says, that relapse is motivated by conditioned withdrawal and drug cravings that are triggered by environmental stimuli associated with prior instances of withdrawal Physical dependence model of Addiction Development of conditioned drug withdrawal responses in dependent drug users 2 Positive Reinforcement Model is Based on the Rewarding and Reinforcing Effects of...
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This note was uploaded on 12/02/2009 for the course PSB 4434 taught by Professor Rowland during the Spring '09 term at University of Florida.

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Exam 3 Review Questions - Sasha Vaziri Neurochemistry...

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