Chapter 32 - Plant Structure, Growth, and Differentiation

Chapter 32 - Plant Structure, Growth, and Differentiation -...

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James Truong 1 Chapter 32 – Plant Structure, Growth, and Differentiation Water Meal – smallest plant Eucalyptus – largest tree Plants come in various different sizes and structures; all have a basic similar structure Plants can be o Herbaceous (nonwoody) that grow in temperate (cold) climates, aerial parts die back(petals) o Woody – in temperate climates, aerial parts persist Annuals o Herbaceous plants Grow, reproduce, and die in one year or less Such as corn, geranium, and marigold Biennials o Herbaceous plants Take 2 years to complete life cycles, then die Year 1 – make lots of carbohydrates Year 2 – flowers and reproduction Such as carrot and Queen Anne’s lace Perennials o Herbaceous and woody plants Have potential to live for more than 2 years Herbaceous o Dormant underground through the winter; grow again in the spring. Minimal metabolic rate possible Woody plants o Above ground stems become dormant; very little growth o Deciduous – shed leaves in the fall o Evergreen – keep some leaves at all times Such as asparagus and oak trees Life History Strategy 1 o Long-lived trees thrive in tropical rain forests Competition prevents most small, short-lived plants from becoming established Life History Strategy 2 o Small, short lived plants thrive in relatively unfavorable environments Such as desert following a rainy period Vegetative Organs (find stuff online for these couple parts) Vegetative Organs Root System o Roots hairs – help draw in water o Central Root is the Taproot; others are branch roots Monocots – fibrous roots (small tap root and many branchroots) Surface area for absorbtion Dicots – large taproots Great for storage Shoot System o Consists of a vertical stem that bears leaves (main organs of photosynthesis) Reproductive structures (flowers and fruits in flowering plants) o Leaf main = petiole; leaf stalk = petiole Axillary bud – where the petal meets the stem Nodes – areas of leaf and axillary bud attachments
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