Chapter 28 - Seed Plants (6) - James Truong Chapter 28 The...

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James Truong 1 Chapter 28 The Plant Kingdom: Seed Plants In Seeds instead of spores o Spore single cell with no food reserves o Seed multicellular generate embryonic root, stem, and leaves has a food supply and has a seed coat for protection integuments – layers of tissue that surrounds the megasporangium and develops into the seed coat 2 groups of seeded plants – based on whether a wall surrounds the ovary o Gymnosperms – “naked seeds” (cones) no walls o Angiosperms – enclosed seeds (fruits) flowering plants Fruit is ovary All seeded plants are heterosporous, sporophyte is dominant, vasculature (xylem (inorganic) and phloem (organic)) Male part of the plant produces wind-borne pollen grains Unlike ferns and other seedless vascular plants Gymnosperms o Cyclads (Phylum Cycadophyta) Palm-like of fernlike in appearance Are dioecious Have male and female reproductive structures on separate plants But reproduce with pollen and seeds in cone-like structures Male reproductive structure – retained flagellate sperm o Wind/insects carry sperm (pollen) to the female plant o Pollen grain germinates and grows into a pollen tube o Sperm cells swim down tube to egg o Ginkgoes (Phylum Ginkophyta) Ginkgo biloba Only surviving species in phylum Deciduous (shed leaves in the fall), dioecious trees Female ginkgo produces fleshy seeds directly on branches, naked seed without cone (stinky) Ginkgo sperm is also flagellate o Conifers (Phylum Coniferophyta) – pines, firs, spruces, hemlocks Largest phylum of gymnosperms Wooded – 2 o xylem
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