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Chapter 31 outline - CHAPTER 31 FUNGI Introduction Fungi...

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CHAPTER 31 FUNGI
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Introduction Fungi are eukaryotes Nearly all multicellular (yeasts are unicellular) Distinguished from other kingdoms by: H Nutrition H Structural organization H Growth H Reproduction
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Absorptive nutrition enables fungi to live as decomposers and symbionts Fungi are heterotrophs that acquire nutrients by absorption Secrete hydrolytic enzymes and acids to decompose complex molecules into simpler ones that can be absorbed Specialized into three main types: H Saprobes - absorb nutrients from dead organic material H Parasitic fungi -absorb nutrients from cells of living hosts; some are pathogenic H Mutualistic fungi -absorb nutrients from a host, but reciprocate to benefit the host
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Extensive surface area and rapid growth adapt fungi for absorptive nutrition Hyphae makes up the mycelium and visible structure we recognize as a mushroom Except for yeast, hyphae are organized around and within food source: H Composed of tubular walls containing chitin
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Fungal hyphae may be sepatate or asepatate Hyphae of septate fungi are divided into cells by cross- walls called septa H Large pores allowing ribosomes, mitochondria, nuclei flow from cell to cell Hyphae of aseptate fungi lack cross walls ( coenocytic ) Parasitic fungi have modified hyphae called haustoria , which penetrate the host tissue but remain outside cell membrane
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Fungi reproduce by releasing spores that are produced either sexually or asexually
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