Chapter 13 outline - Background The passage of genetic...

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Background The passage of genetic information is critical to the reproduction of cells Genes are segments of DNA representing units of hereditary information The physical location of a gene on the chromosome is called its locus
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Types of Reproduction Asexual reproduction Single parent cell/organism produces an identical offspring Except for mutations, the offspring of asexual reproduction are clones of their parents Sexual reproduction Results in greater variation in genetic material
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Two types of cells in humans Gametes -haploid cells (n), carry one set of chromosomes ex. In humans, an egg (1N) and sperm (1N) are reproductive cells that fuse together creating a diploid zygote Somatic cells (Diploid cells) carry two sets of chromosomes (2n)
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In diploid cells, you can pair chromosomes in relation to its size, shape, and banding positions Karyotyping -arranging chromosomes in relation to number, size, type. The chromosomes of a pair are called homologous chromosomes One homologous pair decides your gender The remaining 22 pairs of chromosomes are called autosomes
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Significance of homologous  pairs? Their origin! One member of each homologous pair comes from each parent Ex. Human gametes haploid cells- single set of chrom (23) - Each parent contributes one set of chromosomes and is a member of each homologous pair. - Fertilization - Egg+ Sperm Zygote n n 2n
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How are Gametes Formed? Meiosis: Chromosome number is halved by dividing chromosome members of each homologous pair into different gametes Goes through two rounds of cell division, produces 4 daughter cells w/ half the chromosome number
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Chiasmata-crossing over occurs bwtn nonsister chromatids
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Chapter 13 outline - Background The passage of genetic...

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