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Chapter 12 outline - Chapter 12 The Cell Cycle Cell...

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Chapter 12: The Cell Cycle
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Cell division functions in reproduction, growth, and repair. Cell Division - the reproduction of cells Cell Cycle - the life of a cell from its origin in the division of a parent cell until its own division into two Cell division enables unicellular organisms to divide themselves, forming two separate organisms, and also enables sexually reproducing organisms to develop from a single cell- the fertilized egg, or zygote. After an organism is fully grown, cell division continues to function in renewal and repair.
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Cell division distributes identical sets of chromosomes to daughter cells A cell’s endowment of DNA is called its genome. Before a cell can divide, all of this DNA must be copied and then separated so that each daughter cell ends up with a complete genome. During the replication and distribution of DNA, the DNA molecules are packed into chromosomes . Each eukaryotic species has a characteristic number of chromosomes in each nucleus. Somatic cells – all body cells except the reproductive cells Gametes – sperm and egg cells
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Chromosomes are duplicated and distributed in Mitosis , which is the division of the cell’s nucleus In each eukaryotic chromosome there is a long, linear DNA molecule representing hundreds of thousands of genes. The DNA is associated with various proteins that maintain the structure of the chromosome and help control the activity of genes. This DNA- protein complex, called chromatin , condenses after a cell duplicates its DNA in preparation for division. This allows us to see the chromosomes with a light microscope.
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The Mitotic Cell Cycle Mitosis is just one part of the cell cycle. The mitotic (M) phase is usually the shortest part of the cell cycle. Mitotic cell division alternates with the much longer interphase , where the cell grows and copies its chromosomes. Interphase can be divided into subphases: -The G1 phase -The S phase (DNA synthesis) -The G2 phase During all three subphases, the cell grows by producing proteins and cytoplasmic organelles.
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Mitosis is broken down into five subphases.
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