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Chapter 9 outline - Cellular Respiration Harvesting...

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Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy Chapter 9
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Cellular Respiration Metabolic pathways that release stored energy by breaking down complex molecules are called catabolic pathways. There are two types of catabolic processes- fermentation and cellular respiration.
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Catabolic Pathways Catabolic Pathways Fermentation Cellular Respiration This is the most efficient and prevalent catabolic pathway, in which oxygen is consumed as a reactant along with organic fuel. Is the partial degradation of sugars that occurs without the help of oxygen Catabolic pathways yield energy by oxidizing organic fuels •The breakdown of organic molecules is exergonic
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Energy flow and Recycling Light energy ECOSYSTEM CO 2 + H 2 O Photosynthesis in chloroplasts Cellular respiration in mitochondria Organic molecules + O 2 ATP powers most cellular work Heat Energy Respiration harvests energy stored in organic molecules to generate ATP, Which powers most cellular work. The waste products are used by chloroplasts For photosynthesis. Thus chemicals essential to life are recycled. Energy Flows into an ecosystem as sunlight and leaves as heat
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Redox Reaction Example of Redox Reaction Na + Cl Na + + Cl becomes oxidized (loses electron) becomes reduced (gains electron) Some redox reactions Do not completely exchange electrons Change the degree of electron sharing in covalent bonds
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Redox Reactions Redox reactions Transfer electrons from one reactant to another by oxidation and reduction In oxidation A substance loses electrons, or is oxidized In reduction A substance gains electrons, or is reduced
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Cellular Respiration During cellular respiration Glucose is oxidized and oxygen is reduced C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + Energy becomes oxidized becomes reduced
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Stepwise Harvest Cellular respiration Oxidizes glucose in a series of steps Electrons from organic compounds Are usually first transferred to NAD + , a coenzyme NADH, the reduced form of NAD + Passes the electrons to the electron transport chain If electron transfer is not stepwise A large release of energy occurs As in the reaction of hydrogen and oxygen to form water (a) Uncontrolled reaction Free energy, G H 2 O Explosive release of heat and light energy H 2 + 1 / 2 O 2
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Electron Transport Chain The electron transport chain Passes electrons in a series of steps instead of in one explosive reaction Uses the energy from the electron transfer to form ATP
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