Chapter 7 outline - Chapter 7 A Tour of the Cell!...

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Chapter 7 A Tour of the Cell…!
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How We Study Cells Light Microscope: visible light passes through the  specimen and then through glass lenses. The lenses  refract the light to where the specimen is magnified as  it is projected into the eye Most sub cellular structures, or organelles, are too small to  be resolved by the light microscope Electron Microscope: Does not use light. Instead  focuses a beam of electrons through the specimen or  onto its surface Transmission Electron Microscope(TEM):scientist use  mainly to study the internal ultra structure of cells. It aims  an electron beam through a thin section of the specimen. Scanning Electron Microscope(SEM): Useful for detailed  study of the surface of the specimen
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Cell biologists can isolate  organelles to study their  functions The goal of cell fractionation is to take  cells apart, separating the major  organelles so that their functions can be  studied The instrument used to fractionate cells is the  centrifuge:  a merry-go-round for test tubes  that can spin at various speeds. Fractionation begins with  homogenization -the  disruption of cells 
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Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells  differ in size and complexity All cells have a plasma membrane. Within  the membrane is a semifluid substance  called cytosol All cells contain:  Chromosomes: which carry genes in the form  of DNA Ribosomes: make proteins according to  instructions from the genes
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Prokaryotic Cells Does not contain a nucleus DNA is concentrated in the nucleoid with  no region to separate it from the rest of the  cell The  entire region between the nucleus  and the plasma membrane  is called the  cytoplasm,  only in this type of cell
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Eukaryotic Cells Larger than Prokaryotic cells Contains a nucleus Chromosomes are located in the nucleus Within the cytoplasm in a eukaryotic cell,  suspended in cytosol, are a variety of  membrane-bound organelles of  specialized form and function
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The Plasma Membrane Its function  is to serve as a selective barrier  that allows sufficient passage of oxygen,  nutrients, and wastes to service the entire  volume if the cell. A eukaryotic cell has extensive and elaborately arranged  internal membranes. These membranes also participate  directly in the cell’s metabolism; and many enzymes are  built right into the membranes. In general, biological membranes consist of a double layer 
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Chapter 7 outline - Chapter 7 A Tour of the Cell!...

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