Chapter 5 outline - Ch 5 Macromolecules Macromolecules...

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Ch 5 Macromolecules
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Macromolecules Monomers – small molecules Polymers – long molecules consisting of small molecules linked by covalent bonds Macromolecules – large molecules; polymers 4 Classes – Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, Nucleic Acids Dehydration Synthesis – reaction which covalently bonds two monomers to each other through the removal of water molecules; creates polymers Hydrolysis – process which breaks down polymers to monomers by adding water molecules
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Dehydration Synthesis Process that combines monomers by the removal of water Each monomer contributes part of the water molecule that is lost HO H H HO 1 4 3 2 HO H H 2 O 1 4 3 2
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Process that breaks polymers into monomers by the addition of water The bond between water is broken and one part attaches to one monomer, while the other part attaches to the adjacent monomer Hydrolysis H H 1 4 3 2 HO H H 2 O 1 4 3 2 HO HO
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Carbohydrates Includes sugars and their polymers Monosaccharide – one sugar molecule; ex: glucose, fructose A sugar molecule has a carbonyl group and multiple hydroxyl groups Depending on the location of the carbonyl group, a sugar can be either an aldose or a ketose Disaccharide – two sugar molecules joined by glycosidic linkage Glycosidic Linkage – formed between two monosaccharides by dehydration synthesis
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Carbohydrates Polysaccharide – macromolecules, polymers with a lot of monosaccharides joined by glycosidic linkages Some are storage polysaccharides; ex: starch, used by plant cells, and glycogen, used by animal cells Some are structural polysaccharides which serve as building material; ex: cellulose, major component of plant cell walls, and chitin, used by arthropods to build their exoskeletons
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Lipids Has little or no affinity for water Fat – constructed from glycerol and fatty acids; assembled by dehydration synthesis Fatty Acids – long carbon skeleton; has carboxyl group at one end Ester Linkage – formed between fatty acid and glycerol by dehydration synthesis Triacylglycerol – a glycerol and 3 fatty acids
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This note was uploaded on 12/02/2009 for the course SCI 90210 taught by Professor Durkka during the Spring '09 term at École Normale Supérieure.

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Chapter 5 outline - Ch 5 Macromolecules Macromolecules...

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