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Chapter 4 outline - Proteins,DNA,carbohydrates,andother...

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Proteins, DNA, carbohydrates, and other  molecules that distinguish living matter from  inorganic material are all composed of  carbon atoms bonded to each other and to  atoms of other elements. These other elements commonly include  hydrogen (H), oxygen (O), nitrogen (N), sulfur  (S), and phosphorus (P).
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The study of carbon compounds,  organic  chemistry,  focuses on any compound with  carbon (organic compounds). Most organic compounds contain hydrogen  atoms.  While the percentages of major elements do not  differ within or among species, variations in  organic molecules can distinguish even  between individuals of a single species. 
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The science of organic chemistry began in  attempts to purify and improve the yield of  products from other organisms. Swedish Chemist Jonas Jakob Berzelius  made distinction between organic  compounds and inorganic compounds. 
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Vitalism
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