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Chapter 3 - 2 Outline - CH 3 Water and the Fitness of the...

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CH. 3 Water and the Fitness of the Environment
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The Effects of Water’s Polarity The polarity of water molecules results in hydrogen bonding Organisms depend on the cohesion of water molecules Water moderates temperatures on Earth Oceans and lakes don’t freeze solid because ice floats Water is the solvent of life
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The polarity of water molecules results in hydrogen bonding The bonds that hold together the atoms in a water molecule are polar covalent bonds, with the oxygen region of the molecule having a partial negative charge and the hydrogens having a partial positive charge. Polar molecule-opposite ends of the molecule have opposite charges. The extraordinary qualities of water are emergent properties resulting from the hydrogen bonding that orders molecules into a higher level of structural organization.
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Organisms depend on the cohesion of water molecules Water molecules stick to each other as a result of hydrogen bonding. In liquid form, water is constantly forming, breaking, and reforming, so that at any instant a substantial percentage of molecules are bonded to their neighbor, making water more structured that most liquids. Cohesion-the binding together of like molecules, often by hydrogen bonds Cohesion due to hydrogen bonding contributes to the transport of water against gravity in plants. Adhesion- the clinging of one substance to another Adhesion of water to the walls of the vessels helps counter the downward pull of gravity. Surface Tension- a measure of how difficult it is to stretch or break the surface of a liquid Water has a greater surface tension than most other liquids.
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Water moderates temperatures on Earth Heat and Temperature Kinetic energy- the energy of motion Heat- the measure of total quantity of kinetic energy due to molecular motion in a body of matter Temperature- measures the intensity of heat due to the
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