Arguments_Chart2 - Types of Arguments and Persuasive...

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Persuasive Devices Explanation of Technique 1. Straw Man Challenger attacks a weaker argument rather than the  original statement or position which is harder to  argue against. 2. Ad Hominem       (to the man) Challenger attacks the person, himself, rather than the person's position or argument. 3. False Dilemma Challenger offers two choices. One is so weak that the other choice is more likely to be chosen. This  focuses attention on the stronger of two choices and eliminates the reader from considering other choices  that may have more merit. 4. Begging the Question      (circular reasoning) To  beg the question  means to assume the truth of the very point being raised without any logic to  show why the statement is true in the first place. Example: I think he is unattractive because he is ugly.  Unattractive and ugly mean about the same thing so no logic or reason is used. It is a restatement.  "When did you stop hitting your brother," assumes it's true that you hit your brother. 5. Slippery Slope Challenger attacks the possible result or affect of an idea rather than challenge the original position or  argument. 6. Bandwagon Challenger uses the desire of the reader to "fit in" to win his argument. Everyone else is doing it. 7. Slanted Words        or Phrases Challenger uses emotionally charged words or biased words to argue his point. Descriptors like old fogy  rather than mature citizen might be used. 8. Scare Tactics Challenger causes the reader to be frightened into agreeing with his position. Fear is used to evaluate the  argument rather than logic and reason.  Explanations by purpose fit phenomena into a recognizable pattern, or a human purpose. For example, we may explain why we read blogs by appealing to an interest in the thoughts of others. Explanations by meaning amplify the meanings of particular words or phrases. So, for example, someone might explain that mentations are unseeable, because they are mental actions and, generally speaking, mental things are not visible. Finally, causal explanations offer an understanding of how and why things came to be a particular way. These are the most common kind of explanation. For example, we might explain a car crash by appealing to the fact that the driver was speeding. Three types of inductive argument Enumerative inductive arguments. Generalizations from a sample or examples. Analogical arguments.
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Arguments_Chart2 - Types of Arguments and Persuasive...

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