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Unformatted text preview: FALLACIES Index 1. Ad Hominem 2. Ad Hominem Tu Quoque 3. Appeal to Authority 4. Appeal to Belief 5. Appeal to Common Practice 6. Appeal to Consequences of a Belief 7. Appeal to Emotion 8. Appeal to Fear 9. Appeal to Flattery 10. Appeal to Novelty 11. Appeal to Pity 12. Appeal to Popularity 13. Appeal to Ridicule 14. Appeal to Spite 15. Appeal to Tradition 16. Bandwagon 17. Begging the Question 18. Biased Sample 19. Burden of Proof 20. Circumstantial Ad Hominem 21. Composition 22. Confusing Cause and Effect 23. Division 24. False Dilemma 25. Gambler's Fallacy 26. Genetic Fallacy 27. Guilt By Association 28. Hasty Generalization 29. Ignoring A Common Cause 30. Middle Ground 31. Misleading Vividness 32. Personal Attack 33. Poisoning the Well 34. Post Hoc 35. Questionable Cause 36. Red Herring 37. Relativist Fallacy 38. Slippery Slope 39. Special Pleading 40. Spotlight 41. Straw Man 42. Two Wrongs Make A Right Description of Fallacies In order to understand what a fallacy is, one must understand what an argument is. Very briefly, an argument consists of one or more premises and one conclusion. A premise is a statement (a sentence that is either true or false) that is offered in support of the claim being made, which is the conclusion (which is also a sentence that is either true or false). There are two main types of arguments: deductive and inductive. A deductive argument is an argument such that the premises provide (or appear to provide) complete support for the conclusion. An inductive argument is an argument such that the premises provide (or appear to provide) some degree of support (but less than complete support) for the conclusion. If the premises actually provide the required degree of support for the conclusion, then the argument is a good one. A good deductive argument is known as a valid argument and is such that if all its premises are true, then its conclusion must be true. If all the argument is valid and actually has all true premises, then it is known as a sound argument. If it is invalid or has one or more false premises, it will be unsound. A good inductive argument is known as a strong (or "cogent") inductive argument. It is such that if the premises are true, the conclusion is likely to be true. A fallacy is, very generally, an error in reasoning. This differs from a factual error, which is simply being wrong about the facts. To be more specific, a fallacy is an "argument" in which the premises given for the conclusion do not provide the needed degree of support. A deductive fallacy is a deductive argument that is invalid (it is such that it support....
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- The Bible