ch22ppt - Ent 156 Biology of Parasites Lecture 18. Kimsey...

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Ent 156 Biology of Parasites Lecture 18. Kimsey Apicomplexa and Malaria Baroque Parasites and the Art of Fugue
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I. Malaria: a disease caused by protozoa in mammals lizards and birds A. Protozoa in genus Plasmodium 1. P. falciparum 2. P. vivax 3. P. malariae 4. P. ovale 1. Plasmodium of humans 3. Plasmodium of Mice 4. Plasmodium of birds and lizards- about 100 sp P. Bergi- used extensively in research
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I. Malaria: a disease caused by protozoa in mammals lizards and birds 1. To mammals: Anopheles mosquitoes B. Transmitted by mosquitoes and sandflies 2. To Lizards: Culex mosquitoes and Lutziomyia Sand flies 3. To Birds: Culex mosquitoes
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II. Malaria in Humans : a serious worldwide problem C. 40% of the world’s population lives in endemic areas A. 3- 500 million clinical cases per year B. 1.5- 2.7 million deaths per year (>90% Africa) D. Increasing problem (re-emerging disease) 1. Resurgence in some areas 2. Drug resistance (Increased mortality) 3. Insecticide resistance in mosquito vectors
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E. The disease in humans a. Immunity, general health b. Nutritional state c. Genetics a. (Malaria paroxysms) b. Periodic episodes of fever alternating with symptom-free periods 1. Characterized by acute febrile attacks 2. Manifestations and severity depend on Plasmodium species, host status
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E. The disease in humans a. Recrudescence: break out anew or come into renewed activity, after a period of quiescence 4. Can develop severe complications (especially P . falciparum ) b. Relapse: falling back into a former state, especially after apparent improvement 3. Recrudescences and relapses can occur over months or years Cerebral malaria
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a. Paroxysms associated with synchrony of merozoite release b. Between paroxysms temperature is normal and patient feels well c. P. falciparum may not exhibit paroxysms 5. Malaria Paroxysm- major disease manifestation
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Plasmodium vivax ovali malariae falciparum Paroxysm Severity moderate to severe mild mild to moderate severe Average (per mm 3 ) 20,000 9,000 6,000 50,000- 500,000 Maximum (per mm 3 ) 50,000 30,000 20,000 2,500,000 Anemia ++ + ++ ++++ Duration Disease Infection 3-8 w 5-8 y* 2-3 w 12-20 m * 3 -24 w >20 y 2-3 w 6-17 m Complications renal cerebral ** 6. Severity of disease compared
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ch22ppt - Ent 156 Biology of Parasites Lecture 18. Kimsey...

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