Unformatted text preview: GEOL 1001 Physical Geology Name:______________________________________ Fall 2009 Extra Credit Review Exercise. Fill in all of the answers in the spaces provided. This exercise is due at the final exam. It will not be accepted after the final exam. Chapter 1‐ Introduction to earth science: Define Uniformitarianism: What are the major steps to the scientific method? Put the following in order from least dense to most dense: oceanic crust, continental crust, mantle rock, metallic iron. Chapter 2 – Plate tectonics: The three types of plate boundaries are: 1. 2. 3. A mid‐ocean ridge is a ________________________plate boundary. Oceanic crust that is close to a mid‐ocean ridge is (younger/older) than oceanic crust that is farther away from the mid‐ocean ridge. (circle one) Subduction occur when a. Two plates made of oceanic crust come together b. A plate made of oceanic crust meets a plate with continental crust c. Two plates made of continental crust come together d. Any of these is possible Mantle convection works by (hot/cool) material rising, and (hot/cool) material sinking. (circle one) Hot material is (more/less) dense than cool material. 1 Chapter 3 ‐ Minerals: Define a mineral: What are the different types of bonds that atoms can form with one another? The atomic number o f an atom refers to how many __________________ it contains. The basic building block of silicate minerals is the __________________________________. This building block is made of 1 __________ atom and 4 ___________ atoms. Define: Hardness – Cleavage – Luster – Chapter 4 – Igneous rocks: (the following terms are to be used in the table on the next page) A. Mafic a. Extrusive B. Intermediate b. Intrusive C. Felsic 1. Coarse grained I. Basalt 2. Fine grained II. Diorite III. Rhyolite IV. Gabbro V. Granite VI. Andesite 2 Place one lower‐cased letter, one upper‐cased letter, one number, and one Roman numeral from above in each of the six empty boxes. Igneous High Si Intermediate Si Low Si Rocks Low Mg + Fe Intermediate Mg + Fe High Mg + Fe Fast Cooling Slow Cooling All magmas that are generated in the mantle are _____________ in composition. Briefly describe these ways in which magmas can change their composition: Fractional Crystallization: Assimilation: Magma mixing: Chapter 5 Sedimentary Rocks: ____________ is the most common mineral in detrital sedimentary rocks. Define diagenesis. The three types of sedimentary rocks are: a. Clastic, rhyolitic, and foliated b. Chemical, biological, and clastic c. Chemical, foliated, and clastic d. Biological, rounded, and mafic Fine grained sedimentary rocks are formed from deposits that are (near to/far from) the source rock. (circle one) Rounded sedimentary grains represent (short/far) transport distance. (circle one) 3 List three types of depositional environments for each of the following categories: Continental Shorline Marine Chapter 6 Metamorphic Rocks: Put these rocks in order from low grade to high grade: phyllite, schist, slate, gneiss Foliated rocks are associated with (regional/contact/shock) metamorphism. (circle one) Match the following metamorphic rocks with their parent rocks. Quartzite Marble Shale Slate Sandstone Gneiss Limestone What is an isograd? List the three factors that can lead to metamorphism. Which metamorphic facies represents the highest temperature and pressure conditions? Chapter 7 Deformation 4 The figure represents a map view of rock units exposed at the Earth’s surface. This structure in the subsurface could be a syncline, an anticline or dipping unfolded units. Draw in strike and dip symbols that would be appropriate if this were an anticline. Also label the beds a, b, and c where a is the youngest unit and c is the oldest. List the type of regional stresses and the resulting length change of the crust (ex. shortening, lengthening) for each type of fault listed below. • • • • The tendency of rock to behave in a brittle or ductile way depends on the ____________________. What type of faults occur at mid‐ocean ridges? Chapter 8 Geologic Time: What is the difference between absolute age and relative age? Which principle involves the use of fossils as tools for correlating rock units? A fold where both limbs dip in the same direction is called ______________________________. Normal Reverse Strike‐slip Thrust 5 If a sample has 25% of the parent isotope and 75% of the daughter isotope in an isotope system with a half‐life of 1 million years, then how old is the sample? Place the following units and features in order from oldest (first to occur) to youngest. The wiggly line should be labeled D. Chapter 9 The Early History of the Earth: How did differentiation shape the development of the solar system? 6 How did differentiation shape the development of the earth? What are the different types of meteorites? Why are they different? The earth is ____________ years old. The earth’s oceans and atmospheres formed from gasses released by ___________________. The northern hemisphere of Mars is very smooth, and the southern hemisphere has a lot of craters. Therefore, which portion of Mars has a surface that has been exposed longer? Chapter 12 Volcanoes: Fill in the table below. Rhyolitic Andesitic Basaltic Eruption Temperature Viscosity (thick or thin) Aa lava and pahoehoe lava are both (basaltic, andesitic, rhyolitic) in composition. (circle one) ______________ are clouds of hot ash and rock that race down the flanks of a volcano during eruption of rhyolitic lava. The rock that is formed from the fusing of ash deposits is called ________________. 7 List the 7 types of volcanic structures that can be built from a central eruption. What type of eruption is commonly associated with flood basalts? Eruptions at mid‐ocean ridges always produce _______________lavas because the crust there is so (thick/thin) and so the magma has no chance to stop in a magma chamber and change in composition. Chapter 13 Earthquakes: An earthquake begins at one point within the crust which is called the _______________. The point on the surface of the earth that is directly above that is called the ____________________. Stress On the figure above label the level where the local rock strength can no longer handle the stress that is applied. Label the places that indicate when earthquakes occur. How much stress is on the rock immediately after the earthquake has occurred? Time 8 Type of wave P – wave S – wave Surface wave Order of arrival at seismograph Type of displacement Material(s) they velocity can travel through Complete the table above. Seismograph readings can tell you a. b. c. d. How far away from an earthquake you are What type of motion occurred on the fault The Richter magnitude of the earthquake All of the above The largest earthquakes occur by movement along a plate boundary at a subduction zone. These are called __________________. Chapter 14 The Earth’s Interior: When an earthquake occurs, which direction(s) do seismic waves travel away from the focus? What is the difference between reflection and refraction? What property of rocks determines the velocity at which seismic waves travel through them? 9 In two regions of the earth where the composition and mineralogy of the rocks are the same, seismic waves will travel faster through the region that is (warmer/colder). (circle one) What is magnetic stratigraphy? Chapter 15 Climate: What are the components of the climate system? What is the difference between a positive and negative feedback? List three different time scales on which temperatures on the earth change. What are the processes that move this reaction forward and backward? How have humans influenced the climate in the past century? CaSiO3 + CO2 ↔ CaCO3 + SiO2 10 ...
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- Spring '07
- Geology, Sedimentary rocks, continental crust, oceanic crust, boundary. Oceanic crust, Gabbro V. Granite VI