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Bacteria and Archaea - proteins and replication methods •...

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Bacteria Bacteria can be classified in terms of their three basic shapes. Spiral or helical (spirilli), Rod (bacilli), and Round or spherical (cocci). Cyanobacteria Cyanobacteria are Gram-negative bacteria that photosynthesize, previously called blue-green algae, can also appear red, yellow, brown, black etc... Believed to be responsible for introducing oxygen into the primitive atmosphere. Lack visible means of locomotion. Can live in extreme environments (hot springs). Symbiotic - In association with fungi, form lichens, also symbiotic with ferns, corals and other organisms. Archaea Archaea were considered bacteria until Carl Woese discovered their rRNA has a different sequence of bases than rRNA of bacteria. Tree of Life – 3 domains, bacteria archaea and eukarya Eukarya are believed to be more closely related to archaea than to bacteria, share ribosomal
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Unformatted text preview: proteins and replication methods. • Archaea Structure and Function – Plasma membranes of archaea contain unusual lipids that allow them to function at high temperatures. • Archaea lipids are glycerol linked to branched chain hydrocarbons • Bacterial lipids are glycerol linked to fatty acids – Most are chemoautotrophs. • few are photosynthetic. – Sometimes mutualistic or commensalistic, but none are parasitic. • Types of Archaea – Methanogens • Found in anaerobic environments. • Produce methane from hydrogen gas and carbon dioxide, produce 65% of earths methane. – Halophiles • Require high salt concentrations for growth. • Dead sea, salt lakes of Utah – Thermoacidophiles • Reduce sulfides and survive best at temperatures above 80 o C. • Hot springs, geysers, submarine vents, volcanoes •...
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