review sheet--midterm

review sheet--midterm - Psychology 257 Personality...

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Psychology 257: Personality Psychology—Review for Midterm (Spring, 2009) Chapter 1 1. The scientific study of personality: want to know why people behave the way they do 2. Definition of personality: represents those characteristics that describe & account for consistent patterns of feeling, thinking, & behaving 3. Theory of personality: traits, physical appearance, emotions, actions, social evaluations, talents 4. Personality concepts: a. structure b. process c. growth and development d. psychopathology e. change 5. Examples of environmental determinants of personality: birth order, family size, etc. 6. Evaluation of theories: a. Comprehensiveness: explain diverse set of phenom. b. Bandwidth: cover a wide range c. Fidelity: how well it can explain phenom. d. Parsimony: simple e. Research relevance: Testable Chapter 2 1. Four categories of data: L-O-T-S (Life records, observations, tests, self-evaluations) 2. Four types of reliability: a. test/retest: over time, same test b. internal consistency: each question, all items measure equally well c. interjudge: different ppl provide similar answers d. alternate forms/parallel test: same answers on different tests 3. Five types of validity: a. Face: relevance, do test questions have to do with topic b. Content: cover everything you need to cover c. Criterion: predict something now or later about a person? d. Convergent: similar to other types of tests with same topic e. Discriminant: different from tests with different topics 4. Approaches to research: correlational, experimental, and case study 5. Ethical issues Chapter 3 1. Levels of consciousness Conscious, Preconscious, Unconscious Dreams, motivated unconscious, evidence of its existence—subliminal perception, Freudian slips, Freud’s unconscious vs. the cognitive unconscious Spoonerisms: shock versus sex Cocktail Party Dichotic listening task
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Advertising 2. Other structural elements: Id: animalistic, operates on pleasure principle Ego: balance, operates on reality principle Superego: moral and social standards/values pleasure principle: pursue pleasure, avoid pain reality principle: pleasure is delayed until optimal time 3. Freud’s view of personality as energy system Energy flows, gets dammed up, if blocked from one channel of expression, finds another one. Goal of behavior is pleasure (the reduction/release of energy) 4. Instincts: Life instinct (libido), Death instinct (aggression): driven by our instincts, unlike animals we can control our instincts by delaying or modifying them before they are expressed Expression vs inhibition of instincts—anxiety 5. Defense mechanisms: Projection: put own unacceptable feelings onto others Denial: don’t let yourself believe its true Isolation: allow thought into consciousness but don’t allow accompanying feelings Undoing: magically undo one act with another reaction formation: express the opposite of what you feel rationalization: develop logical explanation for our behavior to justify
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review sheet--midterm - Psychology 257 Personality...

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