Lecture 3 - Lecture3 February9,2009 Sacred Music:...

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Lecture 3 February 9, 2009 Sacred Music : devotional or church music. Secular Music : social or non-church music. - Montecassino, Italy - Early phase in early western history is dominated by a female musican, Hildegard Hildegard of Bingen (1098-1179): a Benedictine abbess in the Rhine area of Germany, famous in her lifetime for her writings (she wrote ten books on subjects ranging from holistic health to plants, trees, rocks and fish, cosmology, and science), her healing, her paintings; and her music (she conceived chants to venerate saints, a liturgical play, and other monophonic and homophonic works). Hildegard was a millennial visionary and prophet who called on church leaders to renew and reform the liturgy - Contrast between early early medieval period and our own time o Medieval= darkness, askew o Medieval period was a smaller place; dominated by peasants, lords, monks, nuns Very few people could read except for monks and the nuns After 800, monks/nuns could write down their music too Monasteries and nunneries were ‘book-lover paradise’ o Before music as written down in 800, it was transmitted orally i.e. Gregorian chant was largely remembered and passed down oral transmission continues to this day with certain popular tunes i.e. three verses, last one is take me out to the ballgame; we have totally forgotten the two verses - Montecassino o “best” church you could become a part of, very musical, etc. o Became very wealthy because aristocrats gave lots of money and land to them in hopes that there would be prayers for them o Had thousands of acres of lands, lots of monasteries and convents o Finished in 1071 o Its dedication was marked by an entire week of ceremonies, chant like singing o Litany of the saints First great musical performance This was performed in that founding week celebration Wasn’t really a landmark event, but this chant and others like it had already been part of the existence
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No one really though of chants as music o But the dedication ceremony was an important cultural and political event; its anniversaries were remembered Later involved Hildegard of bingen She was someone who became a nun and then an abbess at a convent in Montecassino It was her job to pray for the souls of the living and the souls of the dead She participated in musical events as though supposed to spread like infection throughout the world Women in hildegard’s society were not allowed to be exceptionally creative, etc. Hildegard entered church at young age and lived
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Lecture 3 - Lecture3 February9,2009 Sacred Music:...

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