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cramming physiology - 1 Cram Endocrinology Made Easy...

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1. Cram Endocrinology Made Easy Lecture 1: Intro to Endocrinology 1. Types of the “-crines” (cellular regulation) Intracrine The substance that the cell produced acts on the same cell without leaving the cell Example: estrogen on granulosa cells autocrine The substance that the cell produced acts on the same cell, but will go through exocytosis first Example: IGF-1 to bone cells paracrine The substance that the cell produced acts on the neighbor cells and stays local Examples: Somatostatin from Delta cells acts on alpha cells and beta cells, hCG from syncytiotrophoblasts acts on cytotrophoblasts neurocrine Substance released from axons and acts on dentrites (neurotransmitters) NE, Dopamine, epi, endocrine Hormones produced and secreted into blood stream and travels to act on the target cells on the other body parts T3, ACTH... about every other words you talk about or think about or mad at nowadays 2. Major endocrine organs and their hormones Brain (Pineal gland): melatonin : sleep wake cycle? Hypothalamus: GRH, GIH, PIH, CRH, TRH, GnRH) Piruitary gland: PRL, GH, TSH, FSH, LH, ACTH, Oxytocin, ADH Thyroid gland: T3, T4, Calcitonin Parathyroid gland: PTH Skin : Vit D Pancreas: Insulin, Glucagon, Somatostatin Adrenal Gland: Cortisol, Aldosterone, androgens, Catecholamines (epi & NE) Ovaries: Estrogen, Progesterone, Inhibin, Activin Testis: Testesterone, Inhibin Placenta :HPL, hCG, E3, Progesterone (after 8 weeks) Liver: IGF-1 Atrium: ANH Fat: Leptin 3. Chem horm water soluble—needs receptors on the cell membrane to facillitate the cellular response Tyrosine derivatives: dopamine, epi, NE peptides: all the rest, most of hormones that give you headach glycoprotein: FSH, LH, TSH, hCG(2 chains +10% sugar) lipid soluble--“walks in welcome ”for the host cell part, and “do-it-self” guest (hormone), the result? Party time! Steroid, Vit D, T3(ether), AA, Prostaglandins
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4. Pituitary hormones and their functions AP Prolactin (PRL) Stimulates lactation Growth hormone (GH) Stimulates growth via IGF-1, ↑Blood Glucose (BG), ↑Blood Free Fatty acid (FFA), ↓ plasma amino acid (aa) ↑lipolysis, ↑synthesis of gluconeogentic enzymes in liver,but do not ↑gluconeogenesis until epi and glucagon kicks in, ↓ glucose utilization by muscle cells, ↓ Insulin sensitivity Thyrotropin (TSH) Stimulates thyroid gland Corticotropin (ACTH) Stimulates adrenal cortex Follicle stimulating Hormone (FSH) Stimulates follicles growth in female ( granulosa cells ) and stimulates spermatogenesis in testis (Sertoli cells ) Leteinizing hormone(LH) Stimulates ovalation, stimulates sexual hormones in ovary ( theca cell ) and testis ( Leydig cell), IB Melanocyte stimulating hormone ( MSH) Disperses melanin granules in skin PP Oxytocin Stimulates milk “let-down” Antidiuretic hormone (ADH, AVP) Stimulates water reabsorbtion in kidneys Lecture 2 : Intro Con't 1. Intracellular receptors ( Estrogen Priming) Estrogen primes the cell to be able to respond to progesterone.
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