Physiology- Fall 2007 final notes[1]

Physiology- Fall 2007 final notes[1] - Physiology Final...

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Physiology – Final notes Fall 2007 Glucose 90mg% = M – molar 90mg 100ml = 900mg/liter 900mg/liter 180 molecular weight of glucose = 5mM 300mOsmolar = osmolarity of blood 5M CaCl2 = ? Osmolarity CaCl2 Ca++ Cl – CL- =15mOsm Types of cellular regulation: 27 genes in a genome 1. Intracrine = Active principals act in same cell in which they are produced. Granulose cell (ovary) takes androgens inside to make estrogen. This hooks up to a receptor and makes more estrogen 2. Autocrine = Active principals act on same cells from which secreted. Growth factors – cells secrete growth factors and this goes out of the cell and regulates it 3. Panacrine = Active principals act on adjacent cells to cells from which secreted. One cell – Delta cells secrete somatostatin – goes to an adjacent cell and influences it – inhibits glucagons secretion 4. Neurocrine = Active principals released from axons and function on dendrites. Axon to end plate – release of Ach secondary to depolarization. Paracrine mechanism in the neuro system 5. Endocrine = Hormones produced in certain cells and function on distant “target cells”. Starling named hormones B. Endocrinology – study of glands that secrete substances (hormones) internally, usually into the blood. C. Hormones = 10 -8 to 10 -14 Molar ---Mole = Avagadro’s number 1. Substances secreted in trace amounts from within an organism 2. Transported, usually via the blood, to a specific site 3. Not used as a major energy source. Glucose- free fatty acids and amino acids act like hormones, but are not hormones 4. Act to regulate reactions in order to bring about an appropriate response – stimulate something
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Amino acids converted to glucose in the liver by gluconeogenesis. 10% of our diet is amino acids – 25% is free fatty acids D. Source of Hormones: 1. Head: Pineal gland, pituitary gland, hypothalamus 2. Neck: Thyroid gland, parathyroid gland 3. Abdomen: Pancreas, adrenal gland, gut, gonads 4. Skin 5. Heart 6. Fat cells E. What do we want to know about hormones? 1. Chemistry 2. Source 3. Mechanism of synthesis and storage 4. Secreted form of hormones and amounts 5. How carried in blood 6. How it acts on target cells 7. How metabolized 8. Control of secretion and actions on target cells 9. Contribution to homeostasis Capacitation = activation of sperm in the uterus Endocrinology Jargon and Survey of Endocrine Tissues:
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A. Pituitary Gland Hypothalamus Median eminence Pituitary 1. Anterior pituitary - = 6 hormones – certain cells produce each of these hormones: 1. Prolactin – (PRL, LTH, MTH) – lactotropichormome, mammotropichormone Stimulates lactation – lactotropes make this 2. Growth Hormone – (GH, STH) – somatotropichormone Stimulates growth processes Regulates plasma level of glucose, free fatty acids and amino acids – somatotrope makes this 3. Thyrotropin (TSH, thyroid stimulating hormone) Stimulates thyroid gland – growth and hormone production.
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