JEE3320-Topic 01-Batteries and DC Systems

JEE3320-Topic 01-Batteries and DC Systems - Batteries and...

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Unformatted text preview: Batteries and DC Systems 1. General 0 Definition 9 Construction Components & Materials Terminals Operation of Anode and Cathode Theoretical Cell Voltage \ Battery Capacity and Discharge Curves Parameters affecting the capacity 0.9... 2. Lead-Acid Batteries 0 Definition 0 Construction Components & Materials Terminals Chemical Reaction Operation of Anode and Cathode Theoretical Cell Voltage Battery Capacity and Discharge Curves Parameters affecting the capacity Ambient Temperature Specific Gravity Electrolyte Level 9 Charging the Battery Float Charge Equalize Charge Equipment Minimum Operating Voltage Equipment Maximum Operating Voltage Equipment Nominal Operating Voltage IEEE Standards Used Sizing for Loads and Operation 990.90. 0‘...- 3. Lead-AntimonylLead-CalciumIPlante Types Definition Construction Components & Materials Terminals Chemical Reaction Operation of Anode and Cathode Theoretical Cell Voltage Battery Capacity and Discharge Curves 009990.. 9 OOO.‘ Parameters affecting the capacity Ambient Temperature Specific Gravity Electrolyte Level Charging the Battery Float Charge Equalize Charge Equipment Minimum Operating Volt Equipment Maximum Operating Volt Equipment Nominal Operating‘Voltag IEEE Standards Used Sizing for Loads and Operation 22 'Id'l 50 SHEETS 22-142 100 SHEETS 12444 100 SHEETS ® Vba‘piwid‘I-M “Bait—ms Wino. Acme fled Ca-Nvev‘k may?! @mhli'wtl in His acifiwe MW:st dzkicv‘l71L/0 a/mrln‘c we?“ [ma mm ADM. elwfro ems-m1 mgfiem- mammfimm 4M3 - Na 6%;th Gowfihrud‘m' Mirna; Men/(‘3 7L6.“ we”. 2a “M” m {A butt-av e I; we. sci-Sn mhd‘rdfl "1'11 r'edvciwfilk‘gde‘ycd '2. Qty-{9; or {w-BI'HM clu‘iwde - “31%” await-£4? Orleafrala .3 - Eli! E‘Fo [4ft - ‘H-L 9%th “(0‘5be Us flaw/7 c- N23 :1wa fleehozle‘ mil c. «me 'va “'4? ‘2'? +- 2‘; Pmfiiite. Mmme - &.H9J£c Van 7621‘ 6Z1 +’-2e. #526!" - Were“ (2%.:th (diffiMfE) a + UL?» an“; 2,012ng 6M7; Nfiq’rmckcmre ~ 004mb; '23:»11- Le. ““F'Zk Paas'fi'! L shah. :3 e “Cm-0 Jig 2- 0‘”; all + «Q (We. Va,“ y sad-1%.. GIL.” we. 2,3“4 mil-=3. 2N4» GIL _ flagrant .Mu-P Cetl m4 Bififvl'g “' :Prim.‘ Cd‘s our Baiting; U me. the, M QnPdofla (911: be}? “Elfin-60 0.4an €f€C.QLrt'lc.t..LL7 M) hence we Al‘sdxqvqgéw Md dJJ‘quJLJ, Z“ we “did” Md {5 QmQ-ALnC-A b4 Mk. £J05aIrIOGA-fll’ 82rd”? fluid: \ - 9%“ or MarakcaUe Calls. av- Ba'l‘fi'rk-s - WM; We, rufiwiad deciru‘aflmqfiu dWfit-J it) 718% a 0%:th Mffim H F3383? @«UVVM I‘VUHLon/mflté’. (gnaw +0 we? m dimigawma" + M M MU£¥¥5 L», Inst» rw my) ML &«2a0~m5e hi9») deawl e. (Lurk/£15) 04ml IW {raven/{Ufa 22 141 50 SHEETS 22-142 100 SHEETS 22 144 200 SHEETS S/Mww‘? firmim/Va/ 7/21/42 ed" a afiev‘mmffim nit/aways be: J5 {Is (’A/l/d/ 4 (2533/67: (Mica), This {a m (31° QUWIC-S 0%» hide?- add/(.8 Maw current F‘& WWflmBmdwiuIWImflfideflIflflrmg CHARGE 140 :9. p... a 2.20 t g ’ a: —' AM. newsman}! a; o d 2.00 y, ct: u I __ U a: W, “595cm: E z 1.50 __PEH CELL ,- GRVITY m4 _ _ Meant. . I uscmca l I _ a w. MAM/a r£evk+§c3 K‘: - _ i m MEN? L31 ‘I.. La. dam" J. efiuv<_é£c§w;:3ced Han a V7 PXC‘EESc‘Vc Vc/fgféi/flwe Mow/5, m Co‘ng 7-7sz reg-2% 40%. Wkrfe weak/fie spa. NWT 63hr 1“” “4% been PwHw/y 4w- dL‘fiOfimvae . D. "a, WUCKJQQWQGW—jav-leflh a Heat (1qu ma a; We Whfi-WJ is awiwwf ‘ho. Oktwe‘w w almé ,mQJMe 13 deafinEd‘ha mz‘efi‘oe‘ 6*- fiVoufihfl' {*5 We”. 9 E— U‘ihg‘i 9"“ E‘I‘f (C: Affli’ASM W'abaii’er/ b: biwujflj 6‘ “"1 7 he: fifth, a?” alutfiaw‘e. harden» {um/Mel axoezs suI‘pé-qflam H weir- (Nev (Yquwa awarded; Tim: a. M W Wflwfgvmv M vflbal Mr 3 (WE‘RE! flown ke'f‘UmeM gab, 5 a, mam. f CM-vqf’a sic WDV'M Fax/‘61... gPQOiPI‘QWQV g T‘g‘flxqg 22 14] 50 SHEETS 22-142 100 SHEETS 22-144 200 SHEETS 6 m -mamé M Vat/#7,.- 7 Fm. 5a..qu Mama mam Wm} Hm a. game gt ‘sz. warm 'ikfilc. Cafisfm A66 7.. 'V! F [0 ég‘éés flee graft/76? F '5 (a, Fm”: flue m ZAFQ’flk) ‘nz. Mekug QICCTVMAS. :20 Ill—d) 2° 3€+M£iaré m fwwq AGO: age gs {he firm/7 y 79rwa mafia; 11:3. Is. "For gmAmL wdtm TCJP mum are 8% ngiwl £4111) 1'54. Val-{'qu E. flat” Edi] tag from Nerd" e ud’m _ 61:38,: at ‘5”ch %A[azafi bJ‘LW‘L CLC : fcil‘n/FAf 6P Vefamvfyem‘es Q =' $13 “T: «(Leo/of; flufcmhre \ TABLE 1.1 Characteriatics of Elwimde fiatel‘iah‘ Stan-lard Electrochemical AIOI‘IIIC 0r mduction again;an mok'cuim potential Valence Mellmg Density. —--~»—— ---- --——-—-—-— Materééfi weight‘ g at EST. V change paint. 3C 3km” AM 3 3;? A11 Nazca: Anode materials H . 3.6} 0 2 -— - 25.59 0.037 Li (9.94 3.01 1 I38 {1.54 3.86 {3.259 2m Nil 2339 --2.'?1 l 98 0.9? 1.10 0.358 1.1-1 Mg 34.3 “2.33 2 6.“) I .74 2.2!} 0.454 3.8 2.69? Al 26.9 -- Lbb ‘ 3 65‘} 2.69 2.98 9.335 3.1 Ca 40.1 *- 2)“ 2 flfil I54 1.3.4 (1.143 2.96 -- 2.359 [w 518 “1.1.44 2 2523 7.55 $.96 3.64 .7.) 'irl 61d «(3.713 2 419 3.14 0.82 L2! 5.5 -- 1.25‘ Cd I 124 “0,48 2 321 3.115 0.43 2- I ll 4.} Ph 2012 I 3 2 3‘27 1 1.34 {3.26 3.87 2.9 Culhmk materials 0: 3211 1.23 4 -— -- 3.35. 0.30 (.1; 71.0 L30 2 -— —— 0356 132 $0; 641'] l - - - - - - - - - - - -- 0.419 2.38 \finf), 561.9 .232 l —« 5.0 {3.308 3.24 1.5-1 MUCH ‘I l . "o’ 9.39? | 7.4 l 3.2.02 3.42 2.16 (.‘uf‘l 99.!) I}. H l — 3,5 0.2711 160 [L95 Fl: 5, i 29.9 —— 4 «— —- [1.89 1,12 4.35 Ag!) 12.3,?- 0.51“ 2 ‘3 4 (1.433 2.3: 3.2!; Er, 159.8 1 .1 '17 2 -- —- [3.385 2.95 I430 2 16.6 0.101 2 ~-— I I .l “.247 4.05 23-1 A330 231.? 0.35? 2 —- 7.1 £1.23! 4.33 . PM); 2.39.2 I .69 2 — 9.4 0.224 4.45 2.11 ‘ See- also Appendix“ B and C and Table “A. Bafiic clummlytc; ail atlacm :aqumm acid cladndyc. 3 Based on dcmily‘ values shown. 22 14'! 50 SHEETS 12-142 100 SHEETS 22-144 200 SHEETS 6 AMPAD ~ muted M442, ML gmml Nz‘im «amid Muir-m1 ole m damn; 191 {#5 new w; Cm be anaemia. 4VMM R“. my“ got... a}; ab’r'mzmi ewe. (Jewimkfiauj i, I swam (ML pom/(“ml '1 Mlcfioxdfi MFN’.) 4- CLW¢ (fad/MA FLA. 2n. % GILES? Zack, ana" in”? Le “(~0‘76JV ‘c 11,-“? 2:212. 2a Ms t 2.221! ’Ihm..+,‘m.l Gothcéfi (KP-i (311/ I}: éxf/FESKC/ 45’ (37C deg/m? (AW/Ve-Jgéq 72,, eécfia Mxmfmcflm mza/A; Joligea 9.1 firms; 018' C‘QU/Umréj 0r day/wore? v23 , mrfli‘lfifllw ) [firqum‘m tut-Hid? MARVEL will dcjfvav 49%" C 6‘0 2“?3!{r, U041 CHL who; 1? mm fie. MWK o‘P Thysi‘cs 1 thy' Zn + (2‘1. "#5 Zn C‘ 1— _ mama m, ma _ R“? M" I. L13 l: 5 1% Wk '7: W a Eif{ 03ij Caringifir a? MAN-{vits f5 filtkfi Midue} MM “Wye [013; QNCGH'MUV) Loans '11 data? WVAWQVE‘ Q$ {'LQ_c,-rum5+{ JV] 45$ fliedvtcifii] Nafihw (Wk) :- vaWbUKMWL-mw 6%) For 326.012,) [JP Weande pod'mhaab‘a 7—42ij Tin. “Heaveficd meacifi "5 Nafi’hm/qm cafmfi = 2. uvx ’34ng T- Ple' {Cm/L a9“ Vul‘f' e_ " “‘0 we. de—afofll) gamefip eh - a Fat: I lead acid 643+“! aS WM,“ = 4» am; {A aim” incatf’valfoag, §§§§§s :._._..___. ___ . _ TABLE 1.2 ‘i'henmtical Voltage and (Eamon); 0'! Major Bauer}; Schmfi ( "apathy." Bulk-w Am (‘33:ch Rcamirm numb-mm“ V gffla -‘\h.-‘kg Primary [swam-M. 2J1 Han, Zn + 2Mn0,--a Kn!) - MIHO1 Lb 4.411 2'24 Megan-dull: Mg M301. \ Mg 1- 3M1“); * H90.- ‘HM‘J, 2.! in»; 2'?! .— M31011)! Alkaline Man, In M90: Zn 1- 2)-!nO,- 2m + who; 1.5 4.48 12.: Mercury 2:: [-1130 Zn ! HgO—t 2:10 - it}: LIN $.37 390 Mam-cad Cd I-Igo Cd 1 1130 <2 11;,0——-r:.1(0m_, (L91 (LIE In} .9. Hg Mix-r: mm- !» 53:0 ‘ 7n : Agzl) - H=UA£nIUH33 2.6 5.5 um + 2A3 anm'ail Z1: 03 {air} Zn 1- ,03—o in!) ..(15 a 55 mix 113150;, Li so: 21;. + mot-4 L455}. .;.I 2.6-: 37-; mime-L Li mo: 1: + W ‘02» MBWOgUJ ‘) 3.5 3.5:.) w. Rtwne Cupmus chlondc Mg (THC! Mg - Cufi'}; - MgCL — Kfu Lfi LN 2-11 Zimrsih'cr mick: Zn .490 Zn 1 A90 — H .0..... znsmu, 1m 3-53 35a 4 Ag flaumdanlr lxadm‘id P?! “)0: pb_ 91,0: ‘. :51?“ 1: , 2.! 8.32 IL’KI ZPbSO. -- Eli-[.0 I-IJi‘Hm H'- Ni made Fe ; 35:30:)” ., 21.52” M 1.4 4.46 22-1 mam-1):» Puffij Nickcivcadmium Cd N with: (5‘1 . 35500“ ,. 3:.{10 H 3.35 5.52 181 I 1mm: Ia, — («(0113, Slim-mic 61 no In «- Ago-.- I I .()-~»Znt0ll},+ m: L?” 3 “ 22“ Mrkirn mu: Zn 531 oxide Zn ... 35-500” .. 214:0 _., i J- 64 215 ZNiifinl}: -- mum-n2 Nickcl'hwlmgcn E1; Ni “Ililu H: d. gmooflfl giggle” h 1.5 3.46 33.9 Nickd-muml hydride 512‘” NI undc M11. ' PQOOH— M + Ni(0H}= 1.55 6.50 3065 .‘SIIvfl-cadrumm (.11 A30 Cd ... 0 - Alp—cage“): - Ag |.-' 4.41 31" zmcrmwnnc In 1:13 2.11 -~ (.12— chL, 2. I 2 354 394 Zimflwumine 231 Bar: Zr: Eryn-2113?: LfiS 6.1? 23.9 mnmnmmgwa- mm- 1.1 Lino: Li 4- Mn“’02— Mn“'o,[u "1 3.: 350 2% uummimn dimlfldc mm: Pct}; 2mm; 4- chg—ulrcs; ‘ 2A5 :33 1.5:) :35 Ulhimnimm monasullidn' MAJ) l‘cS ZLRAI) *- {‘45- Lifi + Ft: - 2A! 1.33 2.99 345 $ualaurm'sml'ur Na 5 233a l 35—)“: :5, 1.] 3.65 3?? Smfiunu‘mrkcl rmioride N3 Nick. ENa + Nic1:—-2Nfl.'1 -+ Ni 2.58 328 305 Fuel cal! 14,30: Hz 02 (m' a, luflnp I23 [L336 29?: air} ".5134: [male re 9 in Chap. 0 tor practical mama-5. " timed (in nctwc auntie and calllodc mtcliulh mil}; Illclliciélw 0;. [cluclmlylc III'II lfidildtfii}. “? PHI-I n metal hydride‘ §H:m.d (:21 FIG“. Iwiinnwn mirage: [by wright). 22-1 4| 50 SHEETS 22 $42 100 SHEETS 22-144 200 SHEETS .. \ Pa Vmefars a“F-€a+3 l. flpdm L-fic eve( Z; TMJF-erdvm MegfI/Mffi’ 3. Erecé'g‘c, firm/{#1 Elmira: . ‘ev’L-( \ i H i 9 hr + {HIS .9 'ér tiéflé/ 9M/l’ an (Iii ($692M F’s :9 ” agéivaflargaggeyy. ( Tfi?) eve} UVfi. n @331 cm, Void” e4:- fww‘éz in «bk 3" F aim/g 77913-(2 i or EJ51711ch owe/Jr'mfifqrua’fi érmfl J‘Fégéyi/ 2710/5/24 '10; Grqvu‘g‘j a MIHQW {a pvovg‘o/al 137 #1..fo chfve...?lVo/f‘lfit “ML”; M UaHadc. *2 grim. £411., elm-va +.&‘+ (9‘be emu y+ Va 5173.; L240 WK“ be. 2:0: VfiH'fil anrfi saga/'2'? wry/[(96 2,!11' a“? a. cell wf'Hfi air/Mafia fur/‘7 ma Eq U ivdwi' CL rtUH‘ - l2; Ea £0: Vi» I___4__g E0 r at! my, [2,; 1: I‘h‘l’wn vesisfime 2.0 2;: Wetfbr resiswcei’ 0! i ! i 5 § i Ex [Q— '- Bafiev C Mime 541m: g. at 1n g bflfifv bacrcu 43an me me‘mrem magnum; :0 'éa‘ki'ff‘m'r'1,1,1“L [mg V" H11"- g‘lucjed‘gmmw a i E .i . W....._-.____.M.m.,_,._______i_ ..__.._..__ ___i.Mmm._.____.__.____._.___n...N... \ l i V. [3:3 m a: Um,» L=~ mumfidm Fmfi “#51ch AWN/MK. max mg? rs .JDc/mu. I 7L0.— lm. _, c; Ocdcm'ga_ve.fi3'€hHWst a l LCOM) QJWMDW Dun“ Don‘e’l‘u—Ax UMM \me in me p, [00% 3mg {In/9c léswx: “H’Z’ 40A 7S"?o E‘wg /{o vac; {743 Vac; 1 *3 MBA 35% 35m: Merl/9c 17.5mm I i N load wraFfit Fa gm. in flfivarh‘c rats-“r..sz 2* 4 to 3 m TEL but“ Wmfi 1‘; Calcoh/fcxf “scum: Owns-+1 tub. : qunxgmww) + GrimCJ’WAG7$3+(zoon](9hrs)(.wa = 3-00 Mm: 4- 340&Hn + Lam/Hm -"~' IMO Mr: qg Mr; ,_ mm mm. mm .2 (5'54. MMMMM a? 4+; Wm“ bank I'%- “St/DC Tia. w‘tm‘umm a? "Hmme {“Me‘f‘a 1’9 iéfUDC . - \ E Home __ _ I Few m¥wi votch 11L ‘iicells— #jlysyDc/Mrr 74.24;”: 975cm: i $ Fur \fmfi: “of; Wham? VMKC‘QW‘D"; 75—6a-(5 K 2.4sz .x/ F01. \I‘w‘ffi : I Vflffi@qud\ '3 '15 cal: X [.73 2‘. w J ____________________________________ ml EffMdurcf IZni‘VwTS ELY figfifwka « m can 4e6+ evaluWS Jana aqua (saw 6% jig basth +0 Wfi Emit-M Gws‘tMCLil' [W‘i‘WeVaJPt/WS: ' Wkwa {135"- “1+? [5- HQ. CUV‘VM «Qulb‘ (phi/VA WWVW QM c‘e‘fivtv 3 “VT-WT. 03°F) for 30 gmcffi. To a_ UN 6P LAIDQ Pew Ca“, . “rig CA Value, Canine ed cufdedk.) manrcflffi-fi 43%ny (EL:va lama. EAvvcuLv‘bw £aofiw5gv hzqumpachr If; i I ._,J.__._.___.__w¢_.W—_w L, z E i C i CAJON Company '3 F60 Shepard Road, Macedonia. OH 44056 BACKGROUND It is common practice in the Natural Gas Pipeline In- dustry to use impressed current cathodic protection systems on underground pipelines. These protection systems are used to inhibit or prevent corrosion of the technical bulletin no. 1-87 DIELECTRIC FITTINGS line, prolonging its service life and reducing mainte- nance costs. impressed current cathodic protection systems function by applying a low voltage, low amper- age direct current to the pipeline, transferring the ef- fects of corrosion to another material called the anode. MONITORING STATI TYPICAL APPLICATION “RV } “ll RECTIFIER .. .— F:' + mmwxmwmxxw “WWI I\\\ I-t I" (—‘J C (E r v I 3' // f ‘/ '. f .’ . , ./ t , // I I" ' [Kl/i rl/ 'é/fi’rd I I} If,” /)‘/ 1:»/ IO Aisli/I'fi'J/jllll /J' I la!" ’I'J ‘ .DC FLOW I a v (MILLmMPs. STEEL PIPELINE mLLivoosn PURPOSE .. .. -. . . .9“... : Since the pipeline is conducting a lowr level current, avg};sages;:figgggfiggégsgg; j the impuise lines to the monitoring station will also “Anoos'eEp ' “ carry the current. It the current flow along the impulse IMPRESSED CURRENT lines is not interrupted, sensitive metering equipment chnooic PROTECTION SYSTEM in the monitoring station could be damaged or ren- dered inaccurate. A method is needed to prevent cur- rent flow, yet aiiow fluid {natural gas} flow. This is the purpose served by the CAJON Dielectric Fitting. in- stalled on the impulse lines ahead of the monitoring stations, the CAJON Dielectric Fitting interrupts the THERMOPLAS'HC cathodic current flow while permitting lull fluid flow. INSULATORS WTON BRING ’ TFE BACK-UP RlNE l I I :c 8 LLI (3 «I, 'g'o'ia ovms J- DESIGN The CAJON Dielectric Fitting design is unique in that the two primary functions of electrical insulation and fluid containment are separated. This dietectric fitting uses thermoplastic insulators which fulfill the dielectric function. Since the insulators are not pri« mary seals, the material and design provide high di- electric strength over a wide range of operating and climatic cenditions. A Viton O-Fling and TFE back~up ring serve as the primary fluid seal. The seal is completely sell-con- tained in the fitting and requires no maintenance. INSULATING CONNECTION CAUTION The insulating connection must not be pro- ken or used as a disconnection point. Any wrenching must be done in accordance with the installation instructions. FEATURE/BENEFITS Metal components machined from 316 stainless steel - assures component iite in rugged environments. Molded thermoplastic insulation has excellent elec« tricalichemicaliuitra-violet resistance; low water ab- sorption - maintains dieiectric strength and integrity over wide range of operating/climatic conditions. Gageable SVliAlfiELOK® Tube Fitting or tapered pipe thread end connections (NPT, ISOiRT, BSP) — provide direct connection to tube or pipe system. MATERIALS Body: 318 stainless steel Insulators: Moided thermoplastic iii-Fling: 90 durometer Viton Back-up Fling: Virgin TFE TECHNICAL DATA Electrical resistance of insulators: 10 x1060hms @ 10 volts DC @ 70°F Pressure Rating: 4000 psi {27.500 kF’a) Temperature Rating: —40°F(-—40°C) to +200°F (93°C) ORDERING INFORMATION/TABLE 0F DIMENSIONS DiMENSIONS A-C are linger—tight F—Fx—G are across he: flats All dimensions in inches. except where mm is indicated. Dimensions for reference only, subject to change. :' €98? SWRGELOK Ct}. all rights resent” SWAGELOK. TM Crawiord Fitting 00mpan .‘iTCN. “'M DuPont SWAGELOK companies J—nfed :n u S A. ‘3 rE‘Q-IOKii-éfikil-IP ‘3646-53 P—N PT/ iSO/BSF - 354956 TAPERED SWAGELOK $23!} — SS—fi—DE—B 3.92 PIPE Til—{READS To iiz ~ i ss-a-DE-B 4.15 i SWAGELOK 12mm # ‘= SS—lZ-MDE-E 105.4mm . . . 22mm l 22mm ' 22mm - i I (4.15} {2.35) 1 (.90) l13i16) {lBi'tE} _ [n3] ‘swAGELOK i l i 5 TD 3i8 H4 ss-eDE-t—4 313 , -— .88 .28 ‘_ 5i8 ‘ 7i3 i llilfi MALE NPT. { | i i Your Local Authorized Sales 8: Service Representative: ...
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JEE3320-Topic 01-Batteries and DC Systems - Batteries and...

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