metabolism_lecture_8 - Fatty acid catabolism: Large...

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Unformatted text preview: Fatty acid catabolism: Large lipoprotein particles ( 75- 1200 nm). Allow fats and cholesterol to move in aqueous solution (bloodstream). Fatty acids: Phospholipids, Glycolipids (cerebrosides, gangliosides) hormones, intracellular signal molecules important fuel molecules Numbering of C-atoms starting at the carboxyl group: C2 = , C3 = , last C = Indication of double bond: x or counting from (e.g. -3-fatty acid) In biological systems: - mostly even number of C atoms (14-24, 16-18 most prevalent)- double bound mostly with cis configuration- polyunsaturated FA: double bounds separated by at least 1 CH 2 (no conjugated systems) c i s 9 c entrated energy storage (highly reduced and H 2 O-free) glycerides yield ~ 38 kJ/g, carbohydrates only 17 kJ/g contain ~ 6 times more ener Triacylglycerol + 3 H 2 O glycerine + fatty acids +3 H + Lipases Mobilization of triacylglycerols: cAMP regulated lipases: Epinephrin, Norepinephrin, Glucagon, Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) Stimulate adenylyl cyclase (inhibition by insulin) High [cAMP] activates protein kinase A (PKA) Phosphorylation (activation) of lipases Fatty acids are released and transported to the myocyte for oxidation Entry of glycerol into glycolysis or gluconeogenesis: Gluconeogenesis Glycolysis Adipocytes lack glycerol kinase and cannot metabolize the glycerol from triacyl glycerol degradation. Glycerol is shuttled to the liver via the blood. Where? In the liver Feodor Lynen 1911-1979, Nobel prize 1974 Knoop experiment, 1904: First biological labeling experiment Knoop fed phenyl-substituted fatty acids of different lengths to dogs and analyzed their urine Results led to theory that fatty acids are degraded in units of 2 : Oxidation at carbon atom 3 ( carbon) and subsequent cleavage between and C = -oxidation Demonstrated fatty acid degradation in ce ll-free liver extract. Elucidated -oxidation and the role of ATP ....
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metabolism_lecture_8 - Fatty acid catabolism: Large...

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