metabolism_lecture_1 - 1 Office hours: Tuesday/Thursday...

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Unformatted text preview: 1 Office hours: Tuesday/Thursday 10-11 a.m. 308 Barker Hall Tel. 510-642-7200 Email: a.martin@berkeley.edu Textbook: Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry, Nelson & Cox, 5 th ed. Multi-enzyme systems cooperate to: 1)Obtain chemical energy by capturing solar energy or degrading energy-rich nutrient from the environment 1)Convert nutrient molecules into cells own characteristic molecules, precursors for macromolecules 1)Polymerize monomeric precursors into macromolecules: proteins, nucleic acids, fatty acids, polysaccharides 1)Synthesize and degrade biomolecules for specialized cellular functions: messengers, pigments, membrane lipids Metabolism 2 Autotrophs: Photosynthetic bacteria, green algae, vascular plants-> CO 2 from atmosphere as sole source of carbon Some organisms, e.g. cyanobacteria, also capable of nitrogen fixation-> self sufficient Heterotrophs: Can not use atmospheric CO 2 as carbon source, get carbon from environment in form of complex organic molecules, e.g. glucose-> depend on other organisms Cycling of O 2 , CO 2 , and N 2 depends on proper balance between activities of autotrophs and heterotrophs Cycling of matter But: energy flow only one way (dissipation as heat, entropy) 3 All organisms require source of nitrogen (synthesis of amino acids, nucleotides etc.) bacteria & plants: ammonia NH 4 + or nitrate NO 3- vertebrates: obtain nitrogen in form of amino acids and other organic compounds 4 Metabolism: Sum of all chemical transformations Metabolic intermediates (metabolites) Catabolism: Degradative phase, delivers chemical energy (ATP, reduced e--carriers) Anabolism: Biosynthesis of large, complex molecules (lipids, amino acids, nucleic acids, polysaccharides) catabolic pathways -> convergent anabolic pathways - > divergent 5 Recognized that animals transform chemical fuels into heat. -> respiration (= slow combustion of carbon and hydrogen) Lavoisiers experiment on human respiration 6 1 st law: Conservation of energy Matter and energy are neither created nor destroyed. Bioenergetics and Thermodynamic: Quantitative study of energy transductions in living cells All biochemical processes obey the laws of thermodynamics: Living cells: Open systems, exchange of energy and material....
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metabolism_lecture_1 - 1 Office hours: Tuesday/Thursday...

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