Chapter_12_Handout_1

Chapter_12_Handout_1 - PERSONALITY PERSONALITY Chapter 12...

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Unformatted text preview: PERSONALITY PERSONALITY Chapter 12 0. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Trait Theories Psychoanalytic/Psychodynamic Theories Humanistic Theories Social­Cognitive Theories Biological Theories Personality Assessment Lecture Overview 0. Personality: What is personality? Important Definitions 1. Traits: Trait Theories 2. Key Figures: 0. Early Trait Theorists: Allport, Cattell, Eysenck 1. Modern Trait Theorists: McCrae and Costa­­Five­Factor Model (FFM) Take an FFM test: http://www.outofservice.com/bigfive/ Trait Theorists: The Five­Factor Model 0. 1. 2. 3. 4. _________________ (original and open to new ideas vs. conventional and narrow in interests) _________________ (responsible and organized vs. irresponsible and careless) _________________ (sociable and talkative vs. withdrawn and quiet) _________________ (trusting and good­natured vs. suspicious and ruthless) _________________ (emotionally unstable and moody vs. emotionally stable and easygoing) 6. 7. Researchers asked over 10,000 men and women from 37 countries what they wanted in a mate. They found: Trait Theorists: The Five­Factor Model Trait Theorists: The Five­Factor Model 8. 9. Pro: 0. Evolutionary, cross­cultural, and cross­species studies support five­factor model. 1. Five­factor model helps describe and organize personality characteristics using the fewest number of traits. Con: 2. Lacks explanation and specificity. 3. Ignores situational effects and rule expectations. Evaluating Trait Theories 3. Psychoanalytic Theories: examines how unconscious mental forces interplay with thoughts, feelings, and actions Psychoanalytic/Psychodynamic Theories 4. Key Figures: 2. Founding Father—Freud 3. Neo­Freudians—Adler, Jung, Horney 10. 11. 12. Conscious: thoughts or motives person is currently aware of or remembering Preconscious: thoughts, motives, or memories that can be voluntarily brought to mind Unconscious: thoughts, motives, or memories blocked from normal awareness Psychoanalytic/Psychodynamic Theories: Levels of Consciousness Psychoanalytic/Psychodynamic Theories Personality Structures 5. Id: instinctual energy (pleasure principle) 6. Ego: rational part of psyche (reality principle) 7. Superego: the conscience (morality principle) Defense mechanisms: ego’s protective method of reducing anxiety by distorting reality Sample Defense Mechanisms Psychoanalytic/Psychodynamic Theories Psychoanalytic/Psychodynamic Theories 8. ____________________________________: Freudian idea of five developmental periods key to personality development. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. ____________ Stage: birth­18 months ____________ Stage: 18 months­3 yrs ____________ Stage: 3­6 yrs ____________ Stage: 6 yrs­puberty ____________ Stage: puberty­adulthood 13. _ Freud believed _______________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _ Evaluating Psychoanalytic/ Psychodynamic Theories 9. 10. Pro: 9. Historical credit for some Freudian concepts ________________________ 10. Modern psychodynamic theories _____________________________________ (e.g., ) Con: 11. 12. 13. 14. Psychoanalytic concepts ________________________ Overemphasizes ____________________________________ Inadequate evidence, ________________________________________________ Humanistic Theories 14. 15. Humanistic Theories 15. 15. Key Figures: Rogers and Maslow 11. 0. Emphasis on the importance of the self. Humanistic Theories: Rogers’ Key Concepts Mental health is related to the degree of congruence between the self­concept and life experiences. Humanistic Theories: Rogers’s Key Terms (Continued) 16. 17. ____________________________________: positive behavior toward a person contingent on behaving in certain ways ____________ ________________________: positive behavior toward a person with no contingencies attached 12. 13. Pro: Evaluating Humanistic Theories 4. 5. 6. 7. Many ____________________________________________________________ Con: Naive ____________________________________________________________ Poor ____________________________________________________________ Narrowness ________________________________________________ Social­Cognitive Theories 14. Social Cognitive Theories Personality reflects: 8. 9. 16. individual’s ________________________________________________ how people ____________ about the world and ____________ what happens to them Key Figures: Bandura and Rotter Social­Cognitive Theories: Bandura’s Key Terms Social­Cognitive Theories: Bandura’s Key Terms 15. 16. ____________: person’s learned belief that one is capable of producing desired results ________________________: cognitions, behaviors, and the environment interact to produce personality 17. Pro: Evaluating Social­Cognitive Theories Emphasizes Meets most standards for 10. 11. 18. _________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ Con: 12. 13. 19. Narrow ________________________ Ignores ____________ ____________ and ____________ ____________ aspects of personality Three major biological contributors to personality: Brain ____________ Neuro________________________ Genetic ___________ Biological Theories 0. 1. 2. Biological Theories: Biopsychosocial Model 20. ____________ ____________ model suggests ____________ theories provide ____________ insights and ____________ different proportions to ____________. Four methods to measure personality: 1) ____________ 2) ____________ 3) ____________ (MMPI) 4) ____________ (Rorschach, TAT) Personality Assessment Evaluating Methods of Personality Assessment 18. 19. ____________ and ____________ 17. 18. Pro: ____________ Con: time consuming and expensive 20. Projective Tests 19. Pro: insights 20. Con: low reliability and validity Objective Tests 21. Pro: standardized information 22. Con: possible deliberate deception, social desirability bias, diagnostic difficulties, possible cultural bias, and inappropriate use ...
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