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Chapter_4_Handout - Sensation and Perception Sensation...

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Unformatted text preview: Sensation and Perception Sensation Chapter 4 Lecture Overview I n t roduction to Sensation and Perception Understanding Sensation How We See and Hea r Our Other Senses Understanding Perception I n t roduction to Sensation and Perception __Sensation__: process of receiving, t ranslating, and t ransmit ting raw sensory information from the external and internal environments to the brain __Perception__: process of selecting, organizing, and in terpreting sensory data Understanding Sensation: P rocessing __Processing__: sensory organs contain __receptors__ t hat receive and p rocess sensory information from the __environment__ __environment__ Understanding Sensation: P rocessing U nderstanding Three Types of Processing: __Transduction__: converts sensory __stimuli__ i nto neural impulses __Coding__: converts particular __sensory__ s timuli into specific sensations __Sensory reduction__: fil ters and analyzes incoming sensations before sending a neural impulse to the brain Understanding Sensation: P rocessing __Neural impulses__ gained through the senses are sent to various __Neural p a rts of the __brain__ __brain__ * Know figure from book* Understanding Sensation: Th resholds __Psychophysics__: comparing events with our __physiological __physiological experience of them__ experience __Absolute Th reshold__: smallest amount of a stimulus we can __detect__ __detect__ __Difference Th reshold__: minimal __difference__ needed to detect a s timulus __change__; also called the __just noticeable difference (JN D)__. __change__ __just Understanding Sensation : Sensory Adaptation Sensation Sensory A daptation __Sensory Adaptation__: decreased sensory __response__ t o continuous s timulation __Gate-Control Theory of Pain__: Pain perception depends partly on w hether the __neural message__ gets past a “ __gatekeeper__” in the spinal __neural cord. How We See and Hea r: Waves of L ight and Sound Both light and sound move in __waves__. __waves__ __Light__ is a form of electromagnetic energy. Many types of electromagnetic __Light__ waves form the __electromagnetic spectrum__. __electromagnetic __Sound__ waves a re produced when an impact or __vibration__ causes a w aves sudden change in __air pressure__ __air How We See: The Electromagnetic Spectrum ( In Book) How We See: L ight Waves L ight waves vary in: __Length__ (Wavelength), which determines frequency (hue or color) __Length__ __Height__ (Amplitude), which determines brightness or in tensity __Complexity__ (Range), which determines saturation __Complexity__ How We See: Anatomy of the Eye The eye captures light and focuses it on receptors on the __retina__, where it __retina__ is converted to __neural signals__. __neural Small abnormalities in the eyeball’s shape cause problems with vision, such as __nearsightedness__ and __farsightedness__. __nearsightedness__ __farsightedness__ How We See: The Retina Receptors for vision (__rods and cones__) are located in the __retina__. __retina__ The __fovea__, a pit filled with cones, is responsible for our sharpest vision __fovea__ The __blind spot__, near the __fovea__, has no visual receptors __blind __fovea__ How We Hea r: Sound Waves Sound waves vary in: __Length__ (Wavelength), which determines pitch (highness or lowness) __Length__ __Height__ (Amplitude), which determines loudness (intensity of the __Height__ sound). __Complexity__ (Range), which determines timbre __Complexity__ How We Hea r: Anatomy of the Ea r Structures of the outer and middle ear gather and focus sound waves, conducting them to the __cochlea__ __cochlea__ Receptors for hearing are __hair cells__ i n the __cochlea__ __cochlea__ How We Hea r: Loudness The __loudness__ of a sound is measured in __decibels__. __decibels__ __Chronic Exposure__ to loud noise can cause permanent __deafness__, __Chronic __deafness__ as can diseases and biological changes associated with aging Our Other Senses: Olfaction (Sense of Smell) Receptors for smell are embedded in the nasal membrane (the __olfactory __olfactory epithelium__) e pithelium__ Our Other Senses: Gustation (Sense of Taste) Smell and taste are closely related Receptors for taste are __taste buds__, located in __papillae__ on the __taste surface of the tongue Our Other Senses: The Th ree Body Senses The __skin senses__ i nvolve three skin sensations: __touch__ (or pressure), __temperatu re__, and __pain__. __temperatu __pain__. Receptors for these __sensations__ occur in various __concentrations__ __concentrations__ and __depths__ i n the skin Our Other Senses: The Th ree Body Senses The __vestibular sense__ (sense of balance) involves the __vestibular __vestibular sacs__ and __semicircular canals__ located within the inner ear When the vestibular sense becomes confused, motion sickness can occur Our Other Senses: The Th ree Body Senses __Kinesthesia__ p rovides the brain with information about posture and __Kinesthesia__ movement __Kinesthetic receptors__ a re located in muscles, joints, and tendons __Kinesthetic Understanding Perception: I llusions U nderstanding ___Illusions__: false or misleading __perceptions_ t hat help scientists s tudy normal processes of perception Consider the __Muller-Lyer illusion_, shown here. Which vertical line __Muller-Lyer appears longer? Why? Understanding Perception: Overview Three basic perceptual processes: 1) 2) 3) __Selection__: attending to some _sensory_ w hile ignoring __others__ __others__ __Organization__: assembling information into __patte rns__ __patte t hat help us understand the world __Interp retation__ : how the brain explains __sensation__ __sensation__ Understanding Perception: Selection Selection involves: ______Selective Attention____________ ( fil tering out ______Selective ___________unimportant_______ sensory messages) ___________unimportant_______ ________Featu re detectors__________ (specialized ________Featu ________neurons__________ t hat respond only to certain __________________information) __________________ _______Habituation___________ (brain’s tendency to ignore _______Habituation___________ __________environmental________ factors that remain constant) Understanding Perception: Organization We _______organize___________ sensory information in terms of: _________Form_________ _________Form_________ __________Constancy________ __________Constancy________ ______Depth____________ ______Depth____________ ________Color__________ ________Color__________ D epth Perception: Ability to perceive three dimensional space and accurately A bility judge distance j udge Depth Perception involves both binocular (two eyes) and monocular (one eye) cues. U nderstanding Perception: Organization Understanding ___Form Perception____ p rinciples of form perception : ___Form form _______Figure and ground___________ _______Figure Proximity _______Continuity___________ _______Continuity___________ Closure _________Simila rity_________ _________Simila Contiguity _________Perceptual Constancy_________: perceiving the environment as remaining the same even with changes in sensory input Four constancies: __________Size________ __________Size________ _____________Shape_____ _____________Shape_____ _____________Color_____ ___________Brightness______ T wo binocular depth cues: Retinal Disparity : because the distance between our eyes, different images fall on each retina. Convergence: T he closer the object, the more our eyes are tu rned inward. C an you identify these six monocular depth cues in the photo at r ight? Linear Perspective I n te rposition Relative Size Texture Gradient Aerial Perspective Light and shadow Two correct theories of Color Perception : Color T r ichromatic Theory : color perception results from mixing th ree th d istinct color systems (red, green, blue) Opponent- P rocess Theory : color perception results from th ree th systems of color opposites (b lue-yellow, red-green, and black-whi te) blue-yellow, U nderstanding Perception: Understanding I n te rpretation ___Inte rp retation___ i nvolves four major factors: ___Inte _______Perceptual Adaptation___________ _______Perceptual ________Perceptual Set__________ ________Perceptual ________Frame of Reference__________ ________Frame Bottom-Up vs. Top-Down P rocessing Understanding Perception: I n te rp retation _________Perceptual Adaptation_________: b rain adapts to changed _________Perceptual __________environments________ __________environments________ ________Perceptual Set__________: readiness to perceive in a particular ________Perceptual manner, based on _________expectations_________ _________expectations_________ ______Frame of Reference____________: our perceptions depend on the ______Frame ________context__________ of the situation Bottom-Up vs. Top-Down P rocessing: i nfo either starts with raw sensory data or with thoughts, experiences, expectations, language, and cultural knowledge. Understanding Perception: Subliminal Persuasion ______________ (perception without conscious awareness) may occur, but ______________ t here is li t tle or no evidence of __________________. __________________. ...
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