00~alternate set of case study exercises 2006

00~alternate set of case study exercises 2006 - Chapter 1...

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Chapter 1 (Diana Franklin) 2 Chapter 2 (Robert P. Colwell) 9 Chapter 3 (Wen-mei W. Hwu and John W. Sias) 18 Chapter 4 (David A. Wood) 25 Chapter 5 (Norman P. Jouppi) 46 Chapter 6 (Andrea C. Arpaci-Dusseau and Remzi H. Arpaci-Dusseau) 57
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Case Studies with Alternate Exercises
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2 n Case Studies with Alternate Exercises Case Study 1: Chip Fabrication Cost Concepts illustrated by this case study n Fabrication Cost n Fabrication Yield n Defect Tolerance through Redundancy There are many factors involved in the price of a computer chip. New, smaller technology gives a boost in performance and a drop in required chip area. In the smaller technology, one can either keep the small area or place more hardware on the chip in order to get more functionality. In this case study, we explore how dif- ferent design decisions involving fabrication technology, area, and redundancy affect the cost of chips. 1.1 [10/Discussion] <1.6> Figure 1.22 gives the relevant chip statistics that in±uence the cost of several current chips. In the next few exercises, you will be exploring the effect of different possible design decisions for the IBM Power5. a. [10] <1.6> What is the yield for the IBM Power5? b. [Discussion] <1.6> Why does the IBM Power5 have a lower defect rate than the Niagara and Opteron? 1.2 [20/20/10/20] <1.6> It costs $1 billion to build a new fabrication facility. You will be selling a range of chips from that factory, and you need to decide how much capacity to dedicate to each chip. Your Woods chip will be 150 mm 2 and will make a pro²t of $20 per defect-free chip. Your Markon chip will be 250 mm 2 and will make a pro²t of $25 per defect-free chip. Your fabrication facility will be identical to that for the Power5. Each wafer has a 300 mm diameter. a. [20] <1.6> How much pro²t do you make on each wafer of Woods chip? [20] <1.6> How much pro²t do you make on each wafer of Markon chip? c. [10] <1.6> Which chip should you produce in this facility? d. [20] <1.6> If your demand is 50,000 Woods chips per month and 25,000 Markon chips per month, and your facility can fabricate 150 wafers a month, how many wafers should you make of each chip? Chip Die size (mm 2 ) Estimated defect rate (per cm 2 ) Manufacturing size (nm) Transistors (millions) IBM Power5 389 .30 130 276 Sun Niagara 380 .75 90 279 AMD Opteron 199 .75 90 233 Figure 1.22 Manufacturing cost factors for several modern processors. α = 4. Chapter 1 Case Studies with Alternate Exercises by Diana Franklin
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Chapter 1 Case Studies with Alternate Exercises by Diana Franklin n 3 1.3 [20/20] <1.6> Your colleague at AMD suggests that, since the yield is so poor, you might make chips cheaper if you placed an extra core on the die and only threw out chips on which both processors had failed. We will solve this exercise by viewing the yield as a probability of no defects occurring in a certain area given the defect rate. Calculate probabilities based on each Opteron core sepa- rately (this may not be entirely accurate, since the yield equation is based on empirical evidence rather than a mathematical calculation relating the probabili- ties of ±nding errors in different portions of the chip).
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00~alternate set of case study exercises 2006 - Chapter 1...

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