17060026-Glucose-Synthesis(2)

17060026-Glucose-Synthesis(2) - biochem 22) The production...

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biochem 22) The production of ATP using the energy of sunlight is called photophosphorylation . Only two sources of energy are available to living organisms: sunlight and oxidation- reduction (redox) reactions. All organisms produce ATP, which is the universal energy currency of life. In photophosphorylation, light energy is used to create a high-energy electron donor and a lower-energy electron acceptor. Electrons then move spontaneously from donor to acceptor through an electron transport chain. Background ATP is made by an enzyme called ATP synthase. The structure of this enzyme and its underlying gene is remarkably similar in all known forms of life. ATP synthase is powered by a transmembrane electrochemical potential gradient, usually in the form of a proton gradient. The function of the electron transport chain is to produce this gradient. In all living organisms, a series of redox reactions is used to produce a transmembrane electrochemical potential gradient, or a so called proton motive force (pmf). Redox reactions are chemical reactions in which electrons are transferred from a donor molecule to an acceptor molecule. The underlying force driving these reactions is the Gibbs free energy of the reactants and products. The Gibbs free energy is the energy available (“free”) to do work. Any reaction that decreases the overall Gibbs free energy of a system will proceed spontaneously. The transfer of electrons from a high-energy molecule (the donor) to a lower-energy
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17060026-Glucose-Synthesis(2) - biochem 22) The production...

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