5624903-Biology-Lecture-Notes-II

5624903-Biology-Lecture-Notes-II - Lecture Notes II I. Cell...

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Lecture Notes II I. Cell Theory A. Cell – functional unit of all living things – the smallest unit with the properties of life 1. All have a region of DNA, all have cytoplasm, all have plasma membrane B. Types 1. Prokaryotic – primitive cells – no membranous fixed inner structure or nucleus 2. Eukaryotic – has a true nucleus and is a more complex cell. Plant & animal cells are eukaryotes C. Cell Structure – General Cellular Parts 1. Plasma membrane – selective barrier allowing passage of oxygen, nutrients and waste to cell i. Consists of a lipid bilayer that selectively prevents water soluble substances from crossing 2. Nucleus – contains the DNA of eukaryotes – directly communicates with the ( rough ) ER i. Nucleolis – mass of proteins & copies of genes coding for ribosomal RNA 3. Nucleoid – region of cytoplasm in prokaryotes containing DNA 4. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) i. Smooth ER – assists in the packaging and transport of materials in the cell ii. Rough ER – contains protein clumps (ribosomes) on membrane wall, synthesizes lipids, 5. Ribosomes – contained on wall of rough ER and in cytoplasm – assist in TRANSLATION of proteins 6. Mitochondria – primary ATP manufacturer of the cell (thus “powerhouse”) – have their own DNA and divide on their own 7. Golgi Body – manufacture & packaging of inner & extra cellular materials (proteins & lipids) 8. Vesicles – membrane bound grouping of cellular material act as cellular material transporters i. Lysosomes – type/subset of vesicle that can open up and release digestive enzymes breaking down cells ii. Peroxisomes – hold enzymes for digesting fatty acids, amino acids and H 2 O 2 9. Chloroplasts ( plant cell 10. Central Vacuole ( plant cell ) – stores amino acids, sugars, ions and waste, takes up 50 to 90% of the plant cell interior 11. Cytoskeleton – structurally supports, gives shape to and moves eukaryotic cell (not present in prokaryotes) i. Microtubules – largest skeletal elements, regulates cell organelle placement and movement ii. Microfilaments – smallest skeletal elements, reinforce cell shape, reconfigure surface, etc iii. Intermediate filaments – mid sized elements, help reinforce the nucleus II. Biological Membranes A. Composed of Phospholipid Bilayer 1. One polar head, two non-polar tails (heads hydrophilic, tails hydrophobic) 2. Highly polar objects cannot pass through bilayer because of hydrophobic tails 3. Large molecules cannot pass through 4. Gasses CAN pass through via Diffusion – O
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This note was uploaded on 12/04/2009 for the course BIOL 230 taught by Professor Gibson during the Spring '09 term at Tennessee Martin.

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5624903-Biology-Lecture-Notes-II - Lecture Notes II I. Cell...

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