7467151-Chapter-4-CP - KEY CONCEPT All cells need chemical...

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KEY CONCEPT All cells need chemical energy.
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The chemical energy used for most cell processes is carried by ATP. Molecules in food store chemical energy in their bonds. Starch molecule Glucose molecule
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phosphate removed ATP transfers energy from the breakdown of food molecules to cell functions. ATP molecules carry chemical energy that cells use for their functions. Energy is released when a phosphate group is removed. ADP is changed into ATP when a phosphate group is added. When the phosphate group is removed from ATP, it directly provides the energy needed for cell functions.
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Organisms break down carbon-based molecules to produce ATP. Carbohydrates are the molecules most commonly broken down to make ATP. not stored in large amounts up to 36 ATP from one glucose molecule triphosphate adenosine adenosine diphosphate tri=3 di=2
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Fats store the most energy. 80 percent of the energy in your body about 146 ATP from a triglyceride Proteins are least likely to be broken down to make ATP. amino acids not usually needed for energy about the same amount of energy as a carbohydrate
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A few types of organisms use chemosythesis to produce sugars. In this process organisms use chemicals from the environment to build sugars. Some organisms live in places that never get sunlight. In chemosynthesis, chemical energy is used to build carbon-based molecules. similar to photosynthesis uses chemical energy instead of light energy
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KEY CONCEPT The geologic time scale divides Earth’s history based on major past events.
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Index fossils are another tool to determine the age of rock layers. Index fossils can provide the relative age of a rock layer. existed only during specific spans of time occurred in large geographic areas Index fossils include fusulinids and trilobites.
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The geologic time scale organizes Earth’s history. The history of Earth is represented in the geologic time scale. 100 250 550 1000 2000 PRECAMBRIAN TIME Cyanobacteria This time span makes up the vast majority of Earth’s history.
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