4802432-Mechanism

4802432-Mechanism - reaction (larger G) More reactive...

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Substitution reactions at saturated carbon Aims By the end of this lecture you should be aware: That the S N 2 reactions always involves inversion of configuration That S N 2 reactions always occur for primary substrates (RCH 2 X), are very uncommon for tertiary compounds, and are well documented for secondary compounds, depending on the nucleophile, substrate and solvent That the S N 2 reaction will not occur at bridgehead positions That product from an S N 1 reaction can exhibit a range
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Ahigher reactant energy level, red curve means a faster reaction small G
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A higher transition- state energy (red curve) corresponds to a slower
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Unformatted text preview: reaction (larger G) More reactive nucleophiles are less stable and have a higher ground-state energy. Basic, negative nucleophiles are more effective than neutral ones More stable anions lower the energy of the transition state Polar aprotic solvent surround the cation but not the anion Protic solvent stabilise the anion, slow down reaction The first step is rate-limiting The second step is rate limiting The rate-limiting step is the spontaneous dissociation of RX to R+ The energy level of the transition-state energy is lowered dramatically in a polar-solvent...
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4802432-Mechanism - reaction (larger G) More reactive...

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