7339472-KIN2PP - THE RATE THE RATE EQUATION EQUATION A...

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Unformatted text preview: THE RATE THE RATE EQUATION EQUATION A guide for A level students A guide for A level students KNOCKHARDY PUBLISHING KNOCKHARDY PUBLISHING INTRODUCTION This Powerpoint show is one of several produced to help students understand selected topics at AS and A2 level Chemistry. It is based on the requirements of the AQA and OCR specifications but is suitable for other examination boards. Individual students may use the material at home for revision purposes or it may be used for classroom teaching if an interactive white board is available. Accompanying notes on this, and the full range of AS and A2 topics, are available from the KNOCKHARDY SCIENCE WEBSITE at... www.argonet.co.uk/users/hoptonj/sci.htm Navigation is achieved by... either clicking on the grey arrows at the foot of each page or using the left and right arrow keys on the keyboard THE RATE EQUATION THE RATE EQUATION KNOCKHARDY PUBLISHING KNOCKHARDY PUBLISHING THE RATE EQUATION THE RATE EQUATION CONTENTS • Collision theory • Methods for increasing rate • Rate changes during a reaction • The rate equation • Worked examples • Graphical methods for determining rate • Half-life • Rate determining step • Check list Before you start it would be helpful to… • know how the energy changes during a chemical reaction • know the basic ideas of Kinetic Theory • know the importance of catalysts in industrial chemistry THE RATE EQUATION THE RATE EQUATION COLLISION THEORY COLLISION THEORY Collision theory states that... • particles must COLLIDE before a reaction can take place • not all collisions lead to a reaction • reactants must possess at least a minimum amount of energy - ACTIVATION ENERGY plus • particles must approach each other in a certain relative way - the STERIC EFFECT REVISION COLLISION THEORY COLLISION THEORY Collision theory states that... • particles must COLLIDE before a reaction can take place • not all collisions lead to a reaction • reactants must possess at least a minimum amount of energy - ACTIVATION ENERGY plus • particles must approach each other in a certain relative way - the STERIC EFFECT According to collision theory, to increase the rate of reaction you therefore need... more frequent collisions increase particle speed or have more particles present more successful collisions give particles more energy or lower the activation energy REVISION INCREASING THE RATE INCREASING THE RATE • INCREASE THE SURFACE AREA OF SOLIDS • INCREASE TEMPERATURE • SHINE LIGHT • ADD A CATALYST • INCREASE THE PRESSURE OF ANY GASES • INCREASE THE CONCENTRATION OF REACTANTS The following methods may be used to increase the rate of a chemical reaction REVISION Reactions are fastest at the start and get slower as the reactants concentration drops....
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This note was uploaded on 12/04/2009 for the course CHEM 120 taught by Professor Johnmichael during the Spring '09 term at Tennessee Martin.

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7339472-KIN2PP - THE RATE THE RATE EQUATION EQUATION A...

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