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21321929-Kinetics-chemical

21321929-Kinetics-chemical - Chemical Kinetics The area of...

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Chemical Kinetics The area of chemistry that concerns reaction rates .
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Reaction Rate Change in concentration (conc) of a reactant or product per unit time . Rate = conc of A at time conc of A at time 2 1 2 1 t t t t - - = A t
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12_291 0.0003 70s O 2 0.0025 0.005 0.0075 0.0100 0.0006 70s 0.0026 110 s NO 2 NO 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 Concentrations (mol/L) Time (s) [NO 2 ] t
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12_1575 Time Time (a) (b) (c)
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Rate Laws Rate = k [NO 2 ] n k = rate constant n = rate order
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Types of Rate Laws Differential Rate Law : expresses how rate depends on concentration . Integrated Rate Law : expresses how concentration depends on time .
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C 4 H 9 Cl + H 2 O C 4 H 9 OH + HCl
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Method of Initial Rates Initial Rate : the “instantaneous rate” just after the reaction begins. The initial rate is determined in several experiments using different initial concentrations.
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NH 4 + (aq) + NO 2 - (aq) N 2 (g) 2H 2 O(l)
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Overall Reaction Order Sum of the order of each component in the rate law. rate = k [H 2 SeO 3 ][H + ] 2 [I - ] 3 The overall reaction order is 1 + 2 + 3 = 6 .
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2ClO 2 + 2OH - ClO 3 - + ClO 2 - + H 2 O Experiment [ClO 2 ] M [OH - ] M Rate, M s -1 1 0.060 0.030 0.0248 2 0.020 0.030 0.00276 3 0.020 0.090 0.00828 1. Determine the rate law for the reaction. 2. Calculate the rate constant. 3. What is the overall reaction order? ICA
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First-Order Rate Law Integrated first-order rate law is ln[A] = - kt + ln[A] o Rate = A A - = t k For For a a A A Products in a 1st-order reaction, Products in a 1st-order reaction,
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CH 3 NC CH 3 CN Conversion of methyl isonitrile to acetonitrile
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Half-Life of a First-Order Reaction t 1/2 = half-life of the reaction k = rate constant For a first-order reaction, the half-life does not depend on concentration.
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