reader - Examples of chemistry Fire! Extracting metal from...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–4. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: Examples of chemistry Fire! Extracting metal from their ores Making pottery and glazes Fermenting beer and wine Making pigments for cosmetics and painting Extracting chemicals from plants for medicine and perfume Making cheese Dying cloth Rendering fat into soap Making glass Making alloys like bronze Petrucci 1.1 The Scientific Method Petrucci 2.1 Early Discoveries Antonie Lavoisier (1774) Law of Conservation of Mass Matter is neither created of destroyed in a chem- ical reaction The mass of the ashes is 6- 10% of the mass of the wood Joseph Proust (1799) Law of Constant Composition All samples of a given chemical compound have the same elemental composition also knows as the "Law of definite proportions" Pure water always have 11.2% H and 88.8% O independent of source or size of sample May seem obvious today, but at the time the distinction between pure chem- ical compounds and mixtures had not yet been fully developed Daltons Atomic Theory Developed between 18031809 1. All matter is made of atoms. Atoms are indivisible and indestructible. 2. All atoms of a given element are identical in mass and properties 3. Compounds are formed by a combination of two or more different kinds of atoms. 4. A chemical reaction is a rearrangement of atoms. Note that mass conservation and constant composition are both consequences of this theory. Dalton used these observations when he developed his theory. To TEST the theory we need predictions that can be tested experimentally: Predicted consequence of Daltons Atomic Theory: Law of Multiple Proportions When elements combine they do so in a ratio of small whole numbers For example, H 2 O not HO 1 / 2 or H 1 . 6 O . 36 The law of multiple proportions was later experimentally verified by the Swedish chemist Berzelius Discovery of Electrons 2 Petrucci 2.3 Atoms Ernest Rutherford (18711937) Nobel Prize in 1908 Charge Mass (u)...
View Full Document

Page1 / 9

reader - Examples of chemistry Fire! Extracting metal from...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 4. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online