reader123 - Petrucci 5.1 Solutions Solutions are...

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Unformatted text preview: Petrucci 5.1 Solutions Solutions are homogeneous mixtures • Homogeneous: because its composition and prop- erties are uniform • Mixture: because it consists of more than one com- ponent • Solvent - major component • Solute - minor component Solutions do not have to be liquid Solvent Solute Example gas gas Atmospheric air (N 2 , O 2 , CO 2 , etc.) liquid gas carbonated beverages (CO 2 in water) liquid liquid gasoline (a mixture of hydrocarbon compounds) liquid solid Tap water (salts dissolved in H 2 O) solid gas H 2 in platinum or palladium solid liquid dental amalgams ( mercury in silver) solid solid alloys (brass, (Cu/Zn), solder (Sn/Pb)) Types of Homogeneous Mixtures • Solution – Solutions are mixtures with particle sizes at the molecule or ion level ( ≈ 0.1 – 2 nm) – Clear to the eye (may be colored) – The mixture remains stable and does not separate after standing for any period of time – The particles are so small they cannot be separated by normal filtration – Examples: * Salt water * Sugar in water * Steel * CO 2 in water (soda) * Vodka (mainly ethanol + wa- ter) • Colloids – Colloids are mixtures with particle sizes that consist of clumps of molecules ( ≈ 2 – 1000 nm) – Looks homogeneous to the naked eye – Particles large enough to scatter light, hence colloids frequently appear "‘murky"’ or "‘opaque"’ – Generally do not separate on standing, and particles too small to be separated by filtration – Examples: * Milk * Styrofoam * Mayonnaise * Fog * Smoke • Suspensions – Suspensions are mixtures with particles that have diameters greater than ∼ 1000 nm – Particles are big enough that they are visible to the naked eye. – Do not transmit light – Suspensions separate on standing. – The mixture of particles can be separated by filtration. – Examples: * Sand in water * Liquid droplets or fine solid particles in a gas (aerosol) * Paint * Flour suspended in water * Mud or muddy water Petrucci 5.1 Ions in Solution 2 Electrolytes (Demo) • Compounds that dissociate to form ions in solution are called electrolytes • Ionic solutions conduct electricity be- cause the ions can move Strong Electrolytes • Compounds that dissociate (close to) 100% are called strong electrolytes – Salts (ionic compounds) * Most water soluble compounds of group 1 and 2 metals Sr(NO 3 ) 2 (s) H 2 O--→ Sr 2+ (aq) + 2 NO- 3 (aq) * Binary compounds of metals + halides where the metal is in lower oxidation states are typically strong electrolytes CuCl 2 (s) H 2 O--→ Cu 2+ (aq) + 2 Cl- (aq) – Strong acids and bases HCl(aq) H 2 O--→ H + (aq) + Cl- (aq) NaOH(aq) H 2 O--→ Na + (aq) + OH- (aq) Weak Electrolytes and Non-electrolytes • Compounds that dissociate partially in solution are called weak electrolytes – Weak acids and bases CH 3 COOH(aq)-- * )-- H + (aq) + CH 3 COO- (aq) NH 3 (aq) + H 2 O(l)-- * )-- NH + 4 (aq) + OH- (aq) • Molecular compounds that do not dissociate into ions in solution are called...
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reader123 - Petrucci 5.1 Solutions Solutions are...

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