reader123 - Petrucci 5.1 Solutions Solutions are...

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Unformatted text preview: Petrucci 5.1 Solutions Solutions are homogeneous mixtures Homogeneous: because its composition and prop- erties are uniform Mixture: because it consists of more than one com- ponent Solvent - major component Solute - minor component Solutions do not have to be liquid Solvent Solute Example gas gas Atmospheric air (N 2 , O 2 , CO 2 , etc.) liquid gas carbonated beverages (CO 2 in water) liquid liquid gasoline (a mixture of hydrocarbon compounds) liquid solid Tap water (salts dissolved in H 2 O) solid gas H 2 in platinum or palladium solid liquid dental amalgams ( mercury in silver) solid solid alloys (brass, (Cu/Zn), solder (Sn/Pb)) Types of Homogeneous Mixtures Solution Solutions are mixtures with particle sizes at the molecule or ion level ( 0.1 2 nm) Clear to the eye (may be colored) The mixture remains stable and does not separate after standing for any period of time The particles are so small they cannot be separated by normal filtration Examples: * Salt water * Sugar in water * Steel * CO 2 in water (soda) * Vodka (mainly ethanol + wa- ter) Colloids Colloids are mixtures with particle sizes that consist of clumps of molecules ( 2 1000 nm) Looks homogeneous to the naked eye Particles large enough to scatter light, hence colloids frequently appear "murky" or "opaque" Generally do not separate on standing, and particles too small to be separated by filtration Examples: * Milk * Styrofoam * Mayonnaise * Fog * Smoke Suspensions Suspensions are mixtures with particles that have diameters greater than 1000 nm Particles are big enough that they are visible to the naked eye. Do not transmit light Suspensions separate on standing. The mixture of particles can be separated by filtration. Examples: * Sand in water * Liquid droplets or fine solid particles in a gas (aerosol) * Paint * Flour suspended in water * Mud or muddy water Petrucci 5.1 Ions in Solution 2 Electrolytes (Demo) Compounds that dissociate to form ions in solution are called electrolytes Ionic solutions conduct electricity be- cause the ions can move Strong Electrolytes Compounds that dissociate (close to) 100% are called strong electrolytes Salts (ionic compounds) * Most water soluble compounds of group 1 and 2 metals Sr(NO 3 ) 2 (s) H 2 O-- Sr 2+ (aq) + 2 NO- 3 (aq) * Binary compounds of metals + halides where the metal is in lower oxidation states are typically strong electrolytes CuCl 2 (s) H 2 O-- Cu 2+ (aq) + 2 Cl- (aq) Strong acids and bases HCl(aq) H 2 O-- H + (aq) + Cl- (aq) NaOH(aq) H 2 O-- Na + (aq) + OH- (aq) Weak Electrolytes and Non-electrolytes Compounds that dissociate partially in solution are called weak electrolytes Weak acids and bases CH 3 COOH(aq)-- * )-- H + (aq) + CH 3 COO- (aq) NH 3 (aq) + H 2 O(l)-- * )-- NH + 4 (aq) + OH- (aq) Molecular compounds that do not dissociate into ions in solution are called...
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This note was uploaded on 12/04/2009 for the course CHE 15940 taught by Professor Madsen during the Spring '09 term at UC Davis.

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reader123 - Petrucci 5.1 Solutions Solutions are...

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