reader9 - Petrucci 4.1 Chemical Equations Reactants-...

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Unformatted text preview: Petrucci 4.1 Chemical Equations Reactants- Products 2 C(s) + O 2 (g)- 2 CO(g) C(s) + 1 2 O 2 (g)- CO(g) Cu(s) + 2 Ag + (aq)- Cu 2+ (aq) + 2 Ag(s) The stoichiometric coefficients do not necessarily have to be whole num- bers, but it is often preferred For a reaction to be balanced it must have The same number of each type of atom on each side of the arrow The same overall charge on both sides of the arrow Example 1: Balancing Reactions Balance the following reactions by inspection NO(g) + 1 / 2 O 2 (g)- NO 2 (g) 2NO(g) + O 2 (g)- 2NO 2 (g) 2 Na(s) + 2 H + (aq)- 2 Na + (aq) + H 2 (g) 3 PbO(s) + 2 NH 3 (g)- 3 Pb(s) + N 2 (s) + 3 H 2 O(l) SO 2 Cl 2 (l) + 8 HI(g)- H 2 S(g) + 2 H 2 O(l) + 2 HCl(g) + 4 I 2 (s) States of Matter The state of matter may be essential information and is included in the chemical equation using the following symbols: (g) gas (l) liquid (s) solid (aq) aqueous solution Rule of Thumb for the Chem2 series: Include the states of matter in all chemical equations if the information is known What does the Different Types of Arrows Mean A simple right arrow (- ) indicates an irreversible reaction C(s) + O 2 (g)- CO 2 (g) IUPAC definition: A reaction that changes the state of a system which cannot be readily reversed to restore the system to its original state. The reaction goes to completion Chem2A The double arrow (-- * )-- ) indicates a reversible reaction CH 3 COOH(aq) + H 2 O(l)-- * )-- H 3 O + (aq) + CH 3 COO- (aq) IUPAC definition: A reaction that returns a system directly to its original state by reversing the process that changed it. The reaction results in an equilibrium mixture of reactants and prod- ucts Chem2B Necessary reaction conditions can be listed above and/or below the reaction arrow Reaction requires heat is indicated with a : ZnCO 3 (s) - ZnO(s) + CO 2 (g) Catalyst: lactose lactase--- glucose + galactose Specific conditions CO(g) + 2H 2 (g) 350 C , 340 atm-------- ZnO, Cr 2 O 3 CH 3 OH(g) Even participants in the reaction can be included Zn 2+ (aq) + 2 OH ----- * )----- + 2 H + Zn(OH) 2 (s) amphoteric hydroxide + 2 OH ----- * )----- + 2 H + [Zn(OH) 4 ] 2 (aq) zincate 2 Petrucci 4.2 Stoichiometry 2H 2 O 2 (aq)- 2H 2 O(l) + O 2 (g) Two moles of H 2 O is produced for every two moles of H 2 O 2 consumed One mole of O 2 is produced for every two moles of H 2 O 2 consumed The stoichiometric factor is the mole ratio between two participants in a chemical reaction (i.e. the ratio of the stoichiometric coefficients) How much oxygen and water is formed if 0.80 moles of HHow much oxygen and water is formed if 0....
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reader9 - Petrucci 4.1 Chemical Equations Reactants-...

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