4-10-07 RevReas2HO

4-10-07 RevReas2HO - Cognition: Reasoning Homo Sapiens =...

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Unformatted text preview: Cognition: Reasoning Homo Sapiens = wise men Wisdom: knowledge of what is true or right How wise are we? April 17 and 20, 2007 Reasoning Forming a representation. Manipulating the representation. Evaluating the result. Overview The role of visual imagery and memory in the application of knowledge The role of mental models, whether visual or abstract, in deduction The role of representativeness in induction Consistency in preference judgments The Role of Visual Imagery in the Application of Knowledge Visual imagery plays a role in reasoning for some kinds of problems. Linear Orderings Consider: A raccoon is bigger than a squirrel. A dog is bigger than a raccoon. A sheep is bigger than a dog. A deer is bigger than a sheep. A bear is bigger than a deer. Distance Effects Is a sheep bigger than a raccoon? Is a bear bigger than a squirrel? Response time decreases as a function of the size difference between the referents. Which Representation? As a set of individual comparisons? Inference chaining. As a visual representation? Response time decreases as a function of the size difference between the referents (Potts, 1972). Therefore, the representation is visual. Effect found even in abstract orderings: Animal intelligence (which animal is smarter?). Quality and temperature (Holyoak & Walker, 1976). The Availability Heuristic Judgments of frequency are based on how easily instances of a class of objects or events are to remember....
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4-10-07 RevReas2HO - Cognition: Reasoning Homo Sapiens =...

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