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4-10-07 RevReas2HO

4-10-07 RevReas2HO - Cognition Reasoning Homo Sapiens =...

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     Cognition:  Reasoning Homo Sapiens = wise men Wisdom:  knowledge of what is true or  right How wise are we? April 17 and 20, 2007
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     Reasoning Forming a representation. Manipulating the representation. Evaluating the result.
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     Overview The role of visual imagery and memory  in the application of knowledge The role of mental models, whether  visual or abstract, in deduction The role of representativeness in  induction Consistency in preference judgments
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    The Role of Visual Imagery in  the Application of Knowledge Visual imagery plays a role in reasoning  for some kinds of problems.
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      Linear Orderings Consider: A raccoon is bigger than a squirrel. A dog is bigger than a raccoon. A sheep is bigger than a dog. A deer is bigger than a sheep. A bear is bigger than a deer.
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     Distance Effects Is a sheep bigger than a raccoon? Is a bear bigger than a squirrel? Response time decreases as a function of the size difference between the referents.
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     Which Representation? As a set of individual comparisons? Inference chaining. As a visual representation? Response time decreases as a function of the  size difference between the referents (Potts,  1972). Therefore, the representation is visual. Effect found even in abstract orderings: Animal intelligence (which animal is smarter?). Quality and temperature (Holyoak & Walker,  1976).
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     The Availability Heuristic Judgments of frequency are based on  how easily instances of a class of  objects or events are to remember. If it’s easy to remember examples, then the  judgment will be made of higher likelihood  or frequency.
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     The Anchoring Heuristic In estimating a quantity, start with an initial  value and make adjustments.
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